Mitochondrial Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mitochondrial Genetics Deck (21)
1

eukaryotes have cell organelles which are part of the _____ system

endomembrane

2

not so well known organelles

secretory vesicles

lysosomes

peroxisomes

nucleus

3

which eukaryote organelles are autonomous?

mitochondria (in all eukaryotes)

chloroplasts (in plants)

4

autonomous cell organelles have their own ___

genomes

protein-synthetic machinery

5

can autonomous cell organelles divide on their own?

yes

6

if autonomous cell organelles are lost can the cell replace them?

no

7

where do autonomous cell organelles come from?

relics of independent bacteria that became internal symbionts (endosymbionts) in eukaryotes

8

are mitochondrion genomes large?

no, very small because they have lost most of their genes

the genes migrated into the cell's nucleus

non-essential genes were eliminated

9

mitochondrial DNA

genomes are circular and very small

size varies with the complexity of the eukaryote

10

largest known mtDNA genome

from a protozoan with ~97 genes

11

smallest known mtDNA genome

from a mammal with 37 genes

12

mammalian mitochondrial genomes (including humans) only code for ___ genes

37

13

how many mammalian mitochondrial genes code for proteins?

13

the rest are tRNA (22) and rRNA (2)

14

differences in gametes in terms of mitochondria

egg is huge and has many more mitochondria

head of sperm has many mitochondria

15

zygote takes mitochondria from the ....

egg

not the sperm

16

mitochondrial transmission is ___

non-Mendelian inheritance

17

mitochondria are transmitted through the ____ parent

female

doesn't recombine every generation so provides a tracer down the family tree

18

can mitochondria have genetic problems?

yes

either from defective mitochondrial genes

or from defective nuclear genes that affect the mitochondrion

19

can mutations affect the mitochondria?

yes, but there are not in the germline so not passed on

20

3 sources of mitochondrial disease

inherited mutation in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial proteins

inherited mutations in mitochondrial genes

somatic mutations in mitochondrial genes

21

3 possible transmission patterns of mitochondrial traits

mendelian inheritance

non-mendelian inheritance

no inheritance