Flashcards in Mixed Questions (not background) Deck (53):
Who ruled Granada after the Almohads?
Give two examples of Ferdinand's limitations in religious reform
- appointed his 9-year-old illegitimate son to the Archbishopric of Zaragoza (nepotism)
- when Mendoza succeeded Carillo it was most like his generous patronage that secured him the position
Where was Charles I raised?
When was the Battle of Toro?
When Charles came to power, who did he appoint as Bishop of Tortosa?
- Adrian of Utrecht
When Charles came to power, who did he appoint as the chief advisor?
Who joined Adrian of Utrecht as regent after the comuneros revolt?
- the admiral and constable of Castile
What did Gattinara write in a letter to Charles?
- that he was on 'the road towards Universal Monarchy'
Who were executed at the end of the comuneros revolt in the 1521 Battle of Villalar?
- the leaders, Juan Bravo and Padilla
Why was Sergovia in frequent legal disputes with the Mesta throughout the 1490s?
- local herdsmen were obliged to allow sheep farmers on their land
How did Ferdinand and Isabella attempt to control trade from the New World?
- they set up consulados (boards of trade) that would look at shipping contracts, insurance and shipping trade
Give some examples that show some economic policies were successful
- 1497: standardisation of the currency - quicker and easier (efficient) and ensured there wasn't any money lost/ gained in conversion
- no debasement of currency as in other European countries
Among others, who was the main supporter of the need for Isabella and Ferdinand to fund Columbus? What did he do?
- the treasurer of the Hermandad - Santangel
- supplied financial help
- stressed to the monarchs the importance
Who did Charles appoint as Archbishop of Toledo?
- Jacques de Croy - 16 years old
What are the names of the three military orders whose job it was to defend the frontier bordering Muslim territory? (Formed in the 12th century)
Where did Charles announce his decision to abdicate?
- Ducal Palace in Brussels
Who wrote the Manual of Deals and Contracts?
- the contemporary economist Mercado
At Charles' first Cortes(of Castile) in Valladolid - the people refused to see him as a king - what did they call him?
- called him 'su Alteza' and reserved 'Magestad' for Juana
What is an example of a fortress that was given to a Flemish courtier?
- Castle of Lara in Burgos to Cotannes
Accusations of the greed (rapacity) of the Flemish have been treated with scepticism. Identify challenges and supports
C: information about their greed came mainly from humanist writers eg. Martire who hated aristocratic world - deliberately distorted for propaganda
S: Chievres wife was given a passport to take 300 horses laden with clothes, bullion and jewellery
How far did Columbus reach in his 4 voyages?
- modern-day Honduras
In the last 10 years of their reign, how much did Ferdinand and Isabella spend on ambassadors?
By 1504, how much was military ordnance and militia costing Ferdinand and Isabella?
- 80 million
60% of Philip's total expenditure was collected from NW, Castilian taxes and clerical sources - how was this divided?
- 20% NW
- 20% clerical sources
- 20% Castilian taxes
What gives Braudel's explanation of inflation (ie. that contemporaries blamed it on the poor) legitimacy?
- cites book with detailed accounts from pre-1600 from 33 writers who discuss rise in prices
What gave Hamilton's work legitimacy (or so he thought)?
- official registers at Seville
Who critcised Hamilton?
- Kamen and Elliott
Where was Isabella crowned queen? (really important city)
What text did Ignatius Loyola produce?
- the Spiritual Exercises (believed to be Illuminist content)
What favour was given to Gorrevod in Charles reign? (another example of favours given to Burgundians)
- received the whole of Yucatan in 1518
At which Cortes was Philip's claim shown to be well supported?
- Cortes of Almeirim in 1580
At which battle did Philip beat Antonio?
- Battle of Alcantara
In 1578, 32 letters from Madrid were sent to the Spanish ambassador (Mendoza) in Paris in 1578. How long did the fastest and longest take?
- fastest took 7 days, longest 49 days
Due to Ferdinand and Isabella protecting the Mesta when they faced lawsuits over their protection of the canadas, what happened?
- they gained control of the Mesta and their resources (formalised when 1500: member of Royal Council became president of corporation)
- leading to income from tax
Who was the illegitimate son who had been given the AB of Zaragoza and was then made regent of Aragon by Ferdinand while waiting for Charles?
- Alonso de Aragon
In F+I's reign, the economy was not always a priority. Give an example in Aragon where this was the case
- Ferdinand forced the ruling council of Barcelona to settle internal differences that had given rise to conflict and unsettled trade BUT this was more to do with regaining control and order rather than benefitting the economy
While Castilians benefitted from the monopoly of trade with the NW, what did the Catalans benefit from?
- dominating trade with Naples and Sicily
What difficulties relating to the economy were out of I+F's hands?
- ingrained political divisions meaning there was little attempt to unite their states
How do modern economic concerns contrast with the priority of the monarchs?
- F+I knew their policies such as Granada and wars would have damaging economic impacts but continued with them as honour and faith was more important
What had the cathedral chapters really enjoyed which meant they resented the reforms made by the Tridentine Decrees?
- appointing their onw bishops
What powers did the monarchs have over religion in the NW?
- no cleric could go without their permission
- no papal legate
- no direct contact between Rome and clergy in Mexico/ Peru
Not all of the religious orders were as happy and willing to reform - what did 400 Andalusian friars do?
- their preferred conversion to Islam rather than give up their females
In 1485, what provision did Pope Innocent add for the Crown?
- 1/10th of the revenues of the Church in Spain
What was notable about Luis de Santangel? (esp. as Treasurer of the Hermandad)
- he was of conversos descent
What did Lucero do as IQ of Cordoba?
- insitituted a reign of terror
- carried out a huge auto de fe in 1500 in which 130 people were killed
What was the reaction against the blatant corruption of Lucero?
- Cisneros arranged a special assembly in 1508 which sacked him but little else
Where was the first institution to implement limpieza de sangre?
- university college of San Bartolome in Salamanca
Which text influenced a lot of reform of the monastic orders (especially the Benedictines) under F+I?
- the Flemish 'devotio moderna'
What actions/ situations examine how contradictory the desired reform and the practical results were in Spain?
- Carrillo held important synods in 1473, 1480 and 1481 BUT had two sons
Reform in Aragon faced opposition - why?
- it was viewed as Castilian encroachment
Cisneros was really the most outstanding reformer of his day - what is an example of his religious zealousness?
- he personally led the army into Oran in 1509 at the age of 73 and gained it
What other texts did Cisneros encourage the printing of, other than the Polyglot Bible?
- the devotional works of Erasmus and Savonarola