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Flashcards in Mixed Questions (not background) Deck (53):
1

Who ruled Granada after the Almohads?

The Nasrids

2

Give two examples of Ferdinand's limitations in religious reform

- appointed his 9-year-old illegitimate son to the Archbishopric of Zaragoza (nepotism)
- when Mendoza succeeded Carillo it was most like his generous patronage that secured him the position

3

Where was Charles I raised?

Burgundy

4

When was the Battle of Toro?

1476

5

When Charles came to power, who did he appoint as Bishop of Tortosa?

- Adrian of Utrecht

6

When Charles came to power, who did he appoint as the chief advisor?

- Chievres

7

Who joined Adrian of Utrecht as regent after the comuneros revolt?

- the admiral and constable of Castile

8

What did Gattinara write in a letter to Charles?

- that he was on 'the road towards Universal Monarchy'

9

Who were executed at the end of the comuneros revolt in the 1521 Battle of Villalar?

- the leaders, Juan Bravo and Padilla

10

Why was Sergovia in frequent legal disputes with the Mesta throughout the 1490s?

- local herdsmen were obliged to allow sheep farmers on their land

11

How did Ferdinand and Isabella attempt to control trade from the New World?

- they set up consulados (boards of trade) that would look at shipping contracts, insurance and shipping trade

12

Give some examples that show some economic policies were successful

- 1497: standardisation of the currency - quicker and easier (efficient) and ensured there wasn't any money lost/ gained in conversion
- no debasement of currency as in other European countries

13

Among others, who was the main supporter of the need for Isabella and Ferdinand to fund Columbus? What did he do?

- the treasurer of the Hermandad - Santangel
- supplied financial help
- stressed to the monarchs the importance

14

Who did Charles appoint as Archbishop of Toledo?

- Jacques de Croy - 16 years old

15

What are the names of the three military orders whose job it was to defend the frontier bordering Muslim territory? (Formed in the 12th century)

- Calatrava
- Alcantara
- Santiago

16

Where did Charles announce his decision to abdicate?

- Ducal Palace in Brussels

17

Who wrote the Manual of Deals and Contracts?

- the contemporary economist Mercado

18

At Charles' first Cortes(of Castile) in Valladolid - the people refused to see him as a king - what did they call him?

- called him 'su Alteza' and reserved 'Magestad' for Juana

19

What is an example of a fortress that was given to a Flemish courtier?

- Castle of Lara in Burgos to Cotannes

20

Accusations of the greed (rapacity) of the Flemish have been treated with scepticism. Identify challenges and supports

C: information about their greed came mainly from humanist writers eg. Martire who hated aristocratic world - deliberately distorted for propaganda

S: Chievres wife was given a passport to take 300 horses laden with clothes, bullion and jewellery

21

How far did Columbus reach in his 4 voyages?

- modern-day Honduras

22

In the last 10 years of their reign, how much did Ferdinand and Isabella spend on ambassadors?

75 million

23

By 1504, how much was military ordnance and militia costing Ferdinand and Isabella?

- 80 million

24

60% of Philip's total expenditure was collected from NW, Castilian taxes and clerical sources - how was this divided?

- equally
- 20% NW
- 20% clerical sources
- 20% Castilian taxes

25

What gives Braudel's explanation of inflation (ie. that contemporaries blamed it on the poor) legitimacy?

- cites book with detailed accounts from pre-1600 from 33 writers who discuss rise in prices

26

What gave Hamilton's work legitimacy (or so he thought)?

- official registers at Seville

27

Who critcised Hamilton?

- Kamen and Elliott

28

Where was Isabella crowned queen? (really important city)

Segovia

29

What text did Ignatius Loyola produce?

- the Spiritual Exercises (believed to be Illuminist content)

30

What favour was given to Gorrevod in Charles reign? (another example of favours given to Burgundians)

- received the whole of Yucatan in 1518

31

At which Cortes was Philip's claim shown to be well supported?

- Cortes of Almeirim in 1580

32

At which battle did Philip beat Antonio?

- Battle of Alcantara

33

In 1578, 32 letters from Madrid were sent to the Spanish ambassador (Mendoza) in Paris in 1578. How long did the fastest and longest take?

- fastest took 7 days, longest 49 days

34

Due to Ferdinand and Isabella protecting the Mesta when they faced lawsuits over their protection of the canadas, what happened?

- they gained control of the Mesta and their resources (formalised when 1500: member of Royal Council became president of corporation)
- leading to income from tax

35

Who was the illegitimate son who had been given the AB of Zaragoza and was then made regent of Aragon by Ferdinand while waiting for Charles?

- Alonso de Aragon

36

In F+I's reign, the economy was not always a priority. Give an example in Aragon where this was the case

- Ferdinand forced the ruling council of Barcelona to settle internal differences that had given rise to conflict and unsettled trade BUT this was more to do with regaining control and order rather than benefitting the economy

37

While Castilians benefitted from the monopoly of trade with the NW, what did the Catalans benefit from?

- dominating trade with Naples and Sicily

38

What difficulties relating to the economy were out of I+F's hands?

- weather
- geography
- climate
- ingrained political divisions meaning there was little attempt to unite their states

39

How do modern economic concerns contrast with the priority of the monarchs?

- F+I knew their policies such as Granada and wars would have damaging economic impacts but continued with them as honour and faith was more important

40

What had the cathedral chapters really enjoyed which meant they resented the reforms made by the Tridentine Decrees?

- appointing their onw bishops

41

What powers did the monarchs have over religion in the NW?

- no cleric could go without their permission
- no papal legate
- no direct contact between Rome and clergy in Mexico/ Peru

42

Not all of the religious orders were as happy and willing to reform - what did 400 Andalusian friars do?

- their preferred conversion to Islam rather than give up their females

43

In 1485, what provision did Pope Innocent add for the Crown?

- 1/10th of the revenues of the Church in Spain

44

What was notable about Luis de Santangel? (esp. as Treasurer of the Hermandad)

- he was of conversos descent

45

What did Lucero do as IQ of Cordoba?

- insitituted a reign of terror
- carried out a huge auto de fe in 1500 in which 130 people were killed

46

What was the reaction against the blatant corruption of Lucero?

- Cisneros arranged a special assembly in 1508 which sacked him but little else

47

Where was the first institution to implement limpieza de sangre?

- university college of San Bartolome in Salamanca

48

Which text influenced a lot of reform of the monastic orders (especially the Benedictines) under F+I?

- the Flemish 'devotio moderna'

49

What actions/ situations examine how contradictory the desired reform and the practical results were in Spain?

- Carrillo held important synods in 1473, 1480 and 1481 BUT had two sons

50

Reform in Aragon faced opposition - why?

- it was viewed as Castilian encroachment

51

Cisneros was really the most outstanding reformer of his day - what is an example of his religious zealousness?

- he personally led the army into Oran in 1509 at the age of 73 and gained it

52

What other texts did Cisneros encourage the printing of, other than the Polyglot Bible?

- the devotional works of Erasmus and Savonarola

53

In Philip's reign, how did the office of the regidor typify embezzlement?

- the office was open to anyone who could pay the 10,00 ducats and was itself a very low paying job but gave a lot of opportunity for embezzlement