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what were the consequences of the Californian gold rush of 1848

- lawlessness in mining camps
- racial tension due to immigration
- boots US economy to fund railroad
- tension with plains Indians
- genocide of Californian Indians
- manifest destiny
- farming boom
- migration to California meant it increased to 300,00 people in 1855 to become a state


when was the fort Laramie treaty and what did it involve

the government agreed that large areas of land should belong to the Indians tribes 'for all time' such as the Sioux being given the Black Hills of Dakota


what happened between 1851-1867

Fort Laramie treaty of 1851
In 1859 gold in Colorado
1866 the goodnight loving trail set up and the first cattle drives took place and the pony express and a regular stagecoach service to California started up

Indian Wars:
- little crow's war was 1860-61
- sand creek massacre by Chivington's 3rd Colorado volunteers was 1864
- Red Cloud led the Sioux in a successful war against the US in 1866-67
- During the red cloud war Fetterman's massacre took place in 1866 during which 80 US cavalry troopers died


discuss little crow's war

- Civil war meant US army was away but some remained
- little crow decided it was time to take back what was theirs and attack the agent's homes and offices
- young warriors didn't respect LC and killed agents and their families - 600 settlers and US soldiers were killed
- LC and some tribesmen fled to Dakota
- White Minnesotans were determined to make the Dakota Sioux pay for their crimes and put 400 tribesmen on trial and most were executed
- surviving sent to Crow Creek reservation but dry land and died
- little crow and others had a bounty on their heads and a hunter shot little crow and scalped him for the reward but LC son saw the whole thing


discuss the sand creek massacre

- gold discovered in Colorado in 1858
- prospectors trespassed on Cheyenne and Arapaho land
- 1864 natives came into conflict with US
- prospectors got mad and wanted the government to do something about the hostile Indians to make their journey safer
- 1861 fort wise treaty but it didn't work and conflict between prospectors and remaining Indians continued for three years
- to solve this Black Kettle attempted to reach an agreement with the government
- he set up temporary camp at Sand Creek
- 29 November 1864 John Evans sent in a force of 1000 men to kill and destroy hostile Indians
- civil war hero Colonel Chivington lead them. They murdered over 150 Indians including babies
- raped women and mutated the bodies of the dead
- During this BK surrendered and put up white and American flags
- the government was preoccupied with civil war and decided to pacify the tribes
- promised to move them to a large reservation and pay compensation to the survivors. However once the war was over the US ignored the deal and the tribes moved to small reservation and no money to survivors


what was the treaty of fort wise

it stated that the Cheyenne and Arapaho would move to a new reservation in East Colorado. But some Cheyenne and Arapaho remained on old lands


discuss red clouds war

- gold was discovered in Montana in 1862 and to reach it
- people used Bozeman trail which crossed through important Lakota Sioux hunting grounds who responded by attacking the prospectors
- 1866 the government attempted to create a new treaty with LS to agree on safe journey through their land
- before this happened RC discovered the government were building army forts along the BT and realised the government were gonna allow prospectors to travel the BT whether the LS agreed or not
- he called off negotiation and chose to fight
-21 December 1866 LS attacked fort on BT which Fetterman was defending
- LS had a tactic where they sent a few men to be spotted so the rest could ambush leading Fetterman's 80 men into a trap were they were surrounded by 1000+ LS
- all Fetterman's men murdered, stripped, scalped and mutilated
- US army's worst ever defeat against Indians and resulted in the second fort Laramie treaty because the government realised they needed to negotiate as opposed to fight


what was the timber culture act

it allowed a homesteader to claim an extra 160 acres of land if they promised to plant trees on a quarter because it was more difficult to farm on the west were rainfall was lower
trees were important to:
- act as a wind break to shelter crops from damage
-provide settler with timber for building houses, fences, furniture and repairing equipment
- provide settlers with fuel
this act was a correction of the homestead act and aimed to reduce the rate of failure of homesteads
the majority of claims were in Dakota territory, Kansas and Nebraska but the trees died from lack of water
Minnesota was successful
people claimed land with no intention of settling just waiting for price to rise and selling for a profit


what were the plains Indians beliefs about nature

- everything had a spirit that would help humans
- humans should work with the spirits of nature and obey them
- contact spirit world through vision quests guided by spirit animals
- danced special rituals like the sun dance to enter the spirit world
- possible to work with spirits to charge up magic items which Indians would wear to bring luck in hunting or protection from weapons and bullets


what were the plains Indians beliefs about land and property

- land was seen as sacred
- for the Lakota Sioux the Paha Sapa and the black hills of Dakota were the most sacred
- the Lakota believed they had being created by a Great Spirit in a special cave in these hills
- some tribes farmed, hunted ad fished and gathered plant resources and these cases a farming plot belonged to the family rather than whole tribe
- land difficult to farm and wasn't owned by a person or family and land was not something to be bought or sold
- tribes had their own hunting areas and treaties were agreed to share these
- when food resources were scarce tribes were pushed into hunting grounds that were traditionally used by others causing tension between tribes
- farming and mining disrespectful to the land and was likely to disrupt the sacred link between the tribe and spirit


what were the plains Indians attitudes to war

- survival on the Plains was hard so tribes raided each other for food, horses weapons and women to marry and children to rise
- young men were valuable to the tribe as hunters and protectors so could not afford to be lost in raids
- the raid therefore would only go ahead if it looked like a success and the raiders would escape quickly if it turned south
- unlike white American soldiers who believed you shouldn't run away
-only selected brotherhood went on raids to reduce the tribes loss upon failure


discuss the Johnson County War

the first farmers on the Plains clashed with the cattle barons who had their ranches there and there were many disputes particularly over fencing and watering holes leading to a series of clashes know as the range wars the most famous being the Johnson county war
- the Governor Barber of Wyoming supported the cattlemen who said homesteaders were rustling their cattle
- The Sheriff of Buffalo (Red Angus) supported the homesteaders who said the cattle barons were stealing their land
- the cattlemen regularly caught and hung local homesteaders and among them were a poor local couple Ella Watson and Jim Averill and nine trappers who were out hunting wolves

- The cattlemen assembled a list of 70 rustlers they wanted killed and in spring 1892 they hired a lynching party of 43 cattlemen including 20 hired gunmen
- the lynching party attacked a ranch known as the KC ranch
- they killed Nick Ray and his partner Nate Chapman who was roundup foreman of the local Northern Wyoming farmers and stock growers association
- In response Red Angus raised a posse of 319 men who rode out and trapped the cattlemen at a ranch called the TA, the cattlemen were eventually rescued by the army cavalry
- the cattlemen were charged with murder and they bribed the jury and the case was dropped
- nevertheless the war marked the end of the power of the cattlemen


what was the religious settlement

to try to bring together the Catholics and the Protestants and ease religious tensions Elizabeth came up with what became know as the religious settlement
- the act of supremacy
- the act of uniformity


what was the act of supremacy

- made Elizabeth the Supreme Governor of the Church
- the term supreme head was avoided because Christ was seen as head of the church
- strict prohibition of foreign leadership in the English Church so denying Elizabeth's position in the Church was considered treason


what was the act of uniformity

- made Protestantism England's official faith
- set out book of rules of religious practice and worship in a revised prayer book
- retained some Catholic traditions as a compromise to keep her people happy
- broad support of new settlement and few people refused to take the oath of loyalty to Elizabeth
- tolerant approach didn't keep everyone happy and she faced numerous threats
- opposition from Catholics and extreme protestants known as Puritans who objected compromise with Catholic ideas


what factors increased exploration

- expanding trade and the need for new products and markets as war with Spain and in the Netherlands damaged wool and cloth trades
- young men took voyages of discovery like Francis Drake and their accounts although inaccurate encouraged other voyages with the hope of treasure and riches
- new technology meant navigation was safer and more accurate and faster ( quadrants and astrolabes ) leading to more exploration and trade
- Development of standardised maps like the Mercator Map of 1569 gave sailors and traders greater confidence in direction reducing risk and encouraging voyages
- private investment of voyages from the nobility and Elizabeth and although risky rewards could be enormous and increased income of crown and nobility
- improved ship design and greater firepower for protection of pirates
/ more stable and more supplies carried


the failure of the Spanish Armada

- by the spring the Spanish Armada was ready to sail but the death of Spain's leading admiral Santa Cruz in the Feb meant the job was appointed to Medina Sidonia who has little military and naval experience
- armada was 130 ships manned by 8000 sailors with 18,000 soldiers
- the armada wanted to set off in may but was delayed by bad weather in the Bay of Biscay and the attempts of an English fleet to intercept it
- they SA was sighted in July at Cornwall and beacons were lit along the South Coast to send the news to Elizabeth in London so English ships set sail
- SA had a crescent formation which was effective in protecting the weaker ships
- the SA now up the channel anchored to wait for Parma's troops in Calais but his men were being blockaded by Dutch ships and were unable to reach the coast and provide the SA with vital supplies
- then in the middle of the night the English sent fireships to the Spanish which panicked them and broke their formation making them vulnerable to attack
- the Spanish ships regrouped at Gravelines but the weather made it impossible for them to return to their defensive position at Calais so the English moved in and fought
- five Spanish ship sunk and the Spanish fled with the English following to make sure they didn't go to collect Parma's army
- Medina Sidonia called off the attack and returned to Spain through Scotland and Ireland but they were unfamiliar with the dangerous route and encountered powerful Atlantic storms
- ships sank, wrecked or ran out of supplies
- fewer than 10,000 men returned


what were the English strengths of the Spanish Armada

- improved ship building
- long and narrow which were faster and easier to handle
- quicker cannon reloading
- used manoeuvrability to fight from a safe distance rathe than hand to hand combat on board a ship
- used fireships


what were the weaknesses of Spain in the Spanish Armada

- their men lacked in naval warfare experience
- the Spanish plan to meet the Duke of Parma at Dunkirk was seriously flawed
- Spain didn't control a deep water port where they could safely anchor so they were extremely vulnerable to attack while it waited for Parma's troops to escape the Dutch blockade


what bad luck did the Spanish have during the Spanish Armada

the death of their most experienced admiral Santa Cruz in February 1588 leading to the appointment of an inexperienced leader
poor weather made it impossible for the Spanish to return to the Channel after the battle of Gravelines forcing it to travel into the dangerous waters of the Scottish and Irish coast
bad weather meant the Armada set off late


what were the attitudes to the impotent and able-bodied poor

- some financial help known as poor relief which was paid for by special local tax the poor rate
- Justices of the peace organised poor relief
- for many Elizabethans helping the less fortunate was a Christian duty
- people were nice towards those unable to work due to age or illness (the impotent or deserving poor )
- those who were fir to work (able-bodied or idle poor) were treated more harshly and vagrants faced punishments like whipping and imprisonment
- when trade was bad like cloth the able-bodied poor increased as England's population grew
- the poor and unemployed were visible in towns due to the number
- many people who lost their livelihoods in rural areas came to towns in search of work
the cloth trade was super bad in 1563-64 and 1568-73 and 1586-88
during Elizabeth's reign unemployment became a real social and economic problem


government action with regards to the poor

- local officials had the power to collect poor rates on a weekly basis and distribute it to the impotent poor
- vagrants whipped and expelled from towns
- acts of parliament passed as a fear of vagrancy and social unrest
- the 1572 vagabonds act


who were the impotent poor

those unable to work due to age or illness also known as the deserving poor


who were the able-bodied or the idle poor

those who were fit to work but didn't


what was the vagabonds act

a turning point as it established a national poor rate for the first time and it recognised unemployment as a real problem because it gave towns the responsibility of providing work to the able-bodied poor rather than simply punishing them for their circumstances


what was the impact of the Elizabethan poor laws

- poverty continued to be a major problem due to conflict with Spain and the revolt of the Netherlands which hit trade in England badly
- Pamphlet writers stirred up a fear of vagabonds as more and more people appeared in towns in search of work
- ordinary Elizabethans were sympathetic
- some local records show that less than 10% of vagrants were whipped in some towns and in most cases they were given money and sent on their way
- the most important change to Elizabethan poor laws was the recognition of unemployment as a genuine problem and it not being laziness. providing the poor with a way to make things to sell became the law across England.