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what was Germany's situation like at the end of WW1?

- German people suffered hardship
- Allies set up naval blockades which prevented imports of food and essential goods so by 1918 many faced starvation
- public opinion turned against Kaiser Wilhelm II who ruled the German empire like a King
- Germans wanted an end to the war and a democracy, there was a widespread unrest
- In November 1918 some members of the German navy rebelled and refused to board their ships
- In Hanover German troops refused to control rioters
- A Jewish communist called Kurt Eisner encouraged a general uprising which sparked mass strikes in Munich


how did social unrest turn to revolution?

- by November 1918 the situation in Germany verged on a civil war, a huge public protest was led in Berlin and members of the SPD called for the Kaisers reignition
- Kaiser abdicated on 9th November 1918 and on the same day two socialist parties - SDP and the independent social democrat party (USPD) declared a republic
- on the 10th November all the state leaders that had been appointed by the monarchy left their posts
new revolutionary state governments took over instead
- the monarchy was abolished and Germany became a democracy


the signing of the armistice

- on the 11th November 1918 a ceasefire to end the First world war was agreed
- the allies (Britain, France and USA) signed a truce with Germany
- the new republic was under pressure to sign and the government didn't think Germany could continue fighting - its people were starving and morale was low
- the armistice wasn't supported by some right-wing Germans who saw the truce as betrayal

Dolchstass the right wing belief:
some believed the armistice was a mistake and Germany could still win the war. They felt stabbed in the back by the Weimar politicians who brought the treaty of Versailles upon Germany unnecessarily



a dictated peace like the TOV



when talking about the