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Flashcards in Germany KT2 Deck (38)
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when and where did Hitler begin his political career

he began in the German workers' party - a nationalist party led by Anton Drexler. He joined in January 1919 when he was still in the Germany army. He became known for his talent as a passionate and skilled speaker. Crowds gathered to hear him talk and he became the voice of the party.


In relation to the German workers' party what happened to Hitler in 1920 and 1921

the party began to rely on him to get new members and in 1920 he was made chief of propaganda
in 1919 they had around 60 members
in 1920 they had around 2000 members

The party set up a permanent headquarters and Hitler became second in command

in 1920 the party was re-branded as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (the Nazi party)

In July 1921 Hitler became it's leader

Hess, Goering, Streicher and Rohm were some of his supporters


what political stance was the National Socialist German Workers' Party

Nationalist - thought that the interests of Germans should be at the centre of government policy

It was also anti-Semitic (anti jewish) and was opposed to the Weimar republic.

Above everything it wanted "to restore Germany's greatness"


what was the 25 point programme

In February 1920 the Nazi Party promoted its policies in the programme. Things the party promised to accomplish

the programme stressed the superiority of the German people and promoted anti-Semitism. they wanted to raise pensions and improve health and education but only for Germans

the programme appealed to many as it rejected the treaty of Versailles and stated it should be abolished. It also stated that only people with German blood should be classed as citizens - anti-Semitism. the programme gave the Nazi's a nationwide appeal


what is anti-semitism

anti-jewish (against the jews)


who did the 25 point programme appeal to and give an example of a policy

an ex WW1 solider :
land and territory from the treaty of Versailles to be returned

a working class German:
a new and better education system
look after the health of children, introducing more sport and healthier lifestyles

would appeal to a nationalist:
non- Germans are only guests in Germany and not real citizens
all journalists have to be German

jews are not members of the German race
help for small business and large department stores often owned by Jews to be closed down


what did Hitler do in 1921

Hitler founded his own party militia called the SA (storm troopers or brown shirts). They were political thugs and they carried out violent anti-sematic attacks and intimidated rival political groups.

Many people were scared of them but some people admired them

The SA gave the party a military feel which made it seem more organised and disciplined. It also gave many ex-soldiers a job and a purpose


what happened to his mum when he was a boy that affected his views in life

she died of breast cancer and couldn't be helped and he was told this by a jewish doctor


what did Hitler believe about the Jews

they were causing moral decadence


what were four reasons why Hitler's support grew

- charisma
- Nazi emblem turned the party into a household brand
- the SA as he could swiftly remove opposition
- close supporters, he surrounded himself with people he knew were loyal and could do his dirty work for him and he would reward them with power positions


what was the aim of the Munich Putsch

overthrow the government of the German state of Bavaria in November 1923


who were General Ludendorff and Gustav Von Kahr

General Ludendorff - a famous WW1 army general who was well respected by the army and German people

Gustav Von Kahr - Bavarian prime minister, Bavaria is a region in the South of Germany where Munich is with some of its own powers


what happened in 1923 that made it an ideal time to carry out a putsch

- hyperinflation was at it's peak and people were mad at the government and wanted an alternative
- German workers' party was increasing
- occupation of the Ruhr in January left many Germans angry and were mad at the government for surrendering
- Weimar republic seemed weak
- angry at the TOV
- Hitler was inspired by Mussolini's successful March of Rome in 1922
- Germany lost the war in 1918 and signing of armistice


what were the events of the Munich Putsch of 8th and 9th November 1923

- during crisis of 1923 Hitler plotted with Kahr
- 4th October Kahr called of rebellion
- 8th November Hitler and 600 SA burst into a meeting Kahr was holding in a Beer Hall and held a gun to his head
- General Ludendorff let Kahr go home
- SA took over army headquarters and local government newspaper offices
-9th November Hitler and Nazi's marched into Munich but were met by army and police that Kahr had called
- Hitler put on trial in March 1924 for 24 days
- sentenced to 5 years in prison but parole after 9 months


what was the significance of 'Mien Kampf'

vital in spreading Nazi ideology - millions of Germans read it
it introduced Hitler's belief that the Aryan race (which included Germans) was superior to all other races and that all Germans had a right to 'Lebensraum' (more space to live)


what did the Munich Putsch teach Hitler



what evidences the Munich Putsch as a failure in the SHORT TERM

- Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison
- there was little desire amongst the German people for an armed revolution
-Hitler was shot in the arm
-Hitler was betrayed by Kahr
- 16 Nazi's died
- he didn't succeed in taking over the government


what evidences the Munich Putsch as a success in the LONG TERM

- The Munich Putsch was a headline in Germany and Hitler who was previously known by few became a household name over night
- He was able to speak/defend himself at his trial/ speak about the weaknesses of the Weimar republic, he used the trail to spread his ideas on a large scale
- Hitler realised votes not violence
- the Nazi's gained a lot of media attention
- he only spent 9 months in prison out of his 5 year sentence
- prison gave him a chance to sort out his ideas and write his book mien kampf
- people were allowed to visit him in prison and his cell was a comfortable room
- the trail exposed how political people opposed the Weimar constitution because Hitler's sentence was lenient


why might historians have different views about the success of the munich putsch

Hitlers time in prison for example could be seen as a failure because it meant he had failed and people lost respect for him. However some people may say it was a success because it gave him a break from the outside world to formulate a new plan/strategy and write his book


what happened after the Munich Putsch in relation to the Nazi's

1923 was the munich putsh
1924-1929 was the golden era

while Hitler was in prison the German economy began to recover under Stresemann and as a result the general support for the Nazi's declined and overturning the government through a coup no longer seemed realistic

the dip in support showed how important economic unrest was for success because Nazi ideology thrived when Germany was struggling

The Nazi party was banned after the Putsch along with the SA but Hitler was released from Prison in December 1924 and the ban on the party was lifted in February 1925 after Hitler persuaded President of Bavaria Henrich Held. Hitler re-established the Nazi party with himself as supreme leader.


who was Alfred Rosenberg

when Hitler went into prison he looked after the party but he was weak and the party split into several rival groups. Hitler chose a weak leader that wouldn't make bold moves and so he wouldn't be liked more than Hitler


define Gaue and Gauleiter

Gaue -A Nazi party branch following their restructure
Gauleiter - A superior of Nazi branches


what was the Bamberg conference

Sunday 14th February 1926
aimed to
- squash concern in Northern branches of the party
- show Hitler's loyalty lies with the South he chose a location and day that would be difficult for the North to attend
- establish the Fuhrerprinzip
- unite the North and south
- solidify the 25 point programme
- establish that the party was not democratic


How did Hitler's tactics change after the munich putsch

he now tried to gain control through the democratic system by restructuring the Nazi Party so it could compete more successfully in national elections

Bamberg conference:
- he made it clear that the party would only follow his agenda and division was not acceptable as is socialism

the party adopted a national framework and became more centralised. Hitler appointed Gauleiters and were controlled by the parties leadership in Munich and brought every level of the party under Hitler's control

Nazi propaganda was increased and centrally controlled by the team in Munich making the campaigns more efficient. In 1926 Hitler re-established the SA and began using them for propaganda purposes

created new organisations for different social groups. Hitler set up the Hitlerjugend (hitler youth) who rivalled other youth group who by 1925 had 5000 members and by 1930 had 26000. He also established societies for different professions to make everyone feel included and valued

he adjusted the 25 point programme so land could only be confiscated if it was owned by a jew


what ended economic recovery and began the Great Depression

In October 1929 the Wall Street Crash happened sparking an international economic crisis and the USA couldn't afford to prop up the Garman economy any longer
Germany's economic recovery was based on unstable loans from USA under the 1924 Dawes plan and after the crash America wanted their loans back

Germany's economy collapsed and industrial production went into decline - factories closed and banks went out of business. There was mass unemployment and In October 1929 there were 1.6 million people out of work and by February 1932 there were over 6 million



what were the order of the three chancellors



what did Hitler promise during the economic depression

full employment


what are the statistical changes in Nazi seats before and after the great depression

May 1928 = 650,000 unemployed with only 12 Nazi seats

January 1933 = 6,100,000 unemployed and 288 Nazi seats


what was the main reason why the Nazi's gained more votes

the great depression and the wall street crash were the main reason they gained lots of votes because Hitler had been making promises through all hi time but now people began to listen because in times of crisis they look to extreme measures


what were the 6 reasons the Nazis gained more votes in order of importance

1. wall street crash and economic depression
2. Hitler's promises
3. Hitler's personality and propaganda
4. fear of communism- middle and upper classes
5. Use of the SA
6. Weimar government mistakes


when did Hitler become Chancellor

30th January 1933


when did Hitler become dictator

2nd August 1934


Discuss the effect as Heinrich Bruning as chancellor

he was appointed in march 1930
he introduced tough economic policies to keep inflation from rising like it had done in 1923

he raised prices of food and taxes but cut wages
unemployment benefits and pensions reduced
social services were cut
this meant the government lost a lot of backing from the working class

he had difficulty passing his harsh policies with the Reichstag so he began to rely on article 48. He asked president Hindenburg to suspend the constitution so he could make decisions without parliament but this meant Weimar no longer felt like a democracy and the German people felt neglected so began to look towards alternatives like the Nazi and communist parties
by 1932 he was regularly y passing parliament with his laws

in 1942 he resigned as he was so unpopular


what was Nazi membership at in 1930



what happened after the depression

the Nazi's popularity soared because Hitler promised to make Germany great again
voting increased by 10% and people were attracted to the Nazi's
appealed to unemployed and young people and their anti-jew and anti-communist views appealed to many because the jews and communists were useful scapegoats to blame for Germany's economic problems
businessmen who wanted economic prosperity

the Nazi's were more disciplined then ever and were more respectable helping secure support from the middle classes
made individuals feel valued by targeting specific groups which stole smaller groups votes


what happened in 1932

there were elections
- april: economy had worsened and there was desperation for a strong government
- president Hindenburg had to stand for re-election because his office time had run out
- hitler ran against him and he won the first election but in the second ballot Hitler lost 36.8% to 53%

- May: brunning dismissed and von papen now chancellor

July: - in election Nazi's most popular in Reichstag
- Hitler demanded to be chancellor but Hindenburg didn't trust and refused

November: - Nazi's lost 34 seats

December: - Papen replaced with Schleicher who tried to cause divisions in the Nazi party by asking leading Nazi George Strasser to be vice-chancellor but Hitler stopped Strasser accepting


how did Papen get Hitler to be the chancellor

Papen resented Schleicher because he suspected he had persuaded Hindenburg to dismiss him. He wanted to get back into government so he made a deal with Hitler. Hitler would make Papen Vice-chancellor if he persuaded Hindenburg to make Hitler chancellor

In January 1933 Papen persuaded Hindenburg arguing they could control Hitler like a puppet but he was very wrong


what were the seven steps to Hitler becoming chancellor

step one:
- March 1932 Hitler challenged Hindenburg for presidency but lost by 19.4 million to 13.4 million votes

step two:
- May 1932 bruning resigns

step three:
- von papen becomes chancellor
- he is an aristocrat -one of the richest families in Germany

step four:
-july 1932 von papen calls a general election to win more votes for his party the centre party
- they fail to win anymore seats but the Nazi's win 230

step five:
- November 1932 von papen holds new election again but fails again to win more seats for centre party
- Nazi win 196 seats
- Hindenburg replaces Papen with General Kurt Schleicher because papen has no support

step six:
- Schleicher resigns when Hindenburg refuses to continue to govern using article 48
- Hindenburg is left desperate and realises he needs someone who has support from the people

step seven:
- Believing between himself and von papen they could control Hitler, Hindenburg appoints Hitler as chancellor in January 1933
- von papen is appointed vice-chancellor
- They believe he would gain support in the Reichstag and control the communists