Flashcards in MOD Deck (27):
What is quality of life
A measure of fulfilment, subjective and usually based on health/wealth/friends/family etc
What is voluntary euthanasia?
A terminally ill person may ask a doctor or friend to help them die peacefully and with dignity
Aka assisted suicide
Illegal in UK
Legal in Netherlands
Daniel James rugby player case study
What is passive euthanasia?
Allowing a terminally ill/ incurably ill person to die by withdrawing or withholding medical treatment that would only prolong the suffering and have no real benefit
Case study = Tony Bland (hillsborough victim)
Cos of the Bland ruling food and hydration now count as treatment
What is active euthanasia?
Intentionally causing the death of a patient by performing an action such as giving a lethal injection
What is involuntary euthanasia?
When patient wants to live but is killed anyway (murder)
What is non voluntary euthanasia?
when a patient is unable to make their wishes known (eg in a coma) and can't give consent.
Nevertheless the termination of their life is considered to be in their best interest
Eg tony Bland (hillsborough)
What is palliative care?
A fast growing speciality of medicine involving the terminally ill. It controls pain, symptoms, psychological / spiritual angst. Offered in hospices
An alternative to euthanasia
What is the Hippocratic oath?
An oath all doctors take before becoming a doctor pertaining to the ethical practise of medicine 'to help the sick...but never with a view to injury and wrongdoing'
What is a life support machine
A machine that keeps people alive when they would otherwise die
What is a hospice?
Special places where people go to die with dignity
What is a care home
A home for the elderly who are ill and need specialist medical treatment
Secular arguments for euthanasia?
Each individual should have the right to life by their own personal values with the freedom to make decisions that don't harm others
Being able to die with dignity should be a fundamental human right
If someone who isn't disabled can legally commit suicide, it's unjust to disallow disabled people from making that choice
Everyone has a right to a good QoL there if u live a life of pain/suffering surely it's your right to terminate it
Secular arguments against euthanasia?
Elderly, disabled and sick are vulnerable to develop a 'duty to die' if it is legalised (they might feel like an economic/emotional burden)
Could promote exploitation and abuse leading to involuntary euthanasia
78% of UK doctors are against euthanasia as it gives them too much power/responsibility
What do Christians believe happens after we die?
John 11:25-26 'He who believe in me will live even if he does' = jesus's ressurectstion made all life after death possible
Christian believe in an afterlife where their individual soul lives on and is raised to new life by Gid
God will treat people in the afterlife according to how they lived their life on Earth
Some people thing heaven is a physical place others think it's the soul being united with God
Hell is a place where ur eternally separated from God
What do Hindus think happen after we die?
Believe people's at and are reborn through the Cycle of Samsara until we achieve Moksha
Speed of achieving moksha is determined by karma from previous lives and karma from present life that will affect future lives
Bhagavad Gita 8:15 = 'rebirth is full of suffering (...) free from it they can attain the all highest prize'
How are the elderly are negatively perceived and problems they face?
Burden on health care/economy
Slow / outdated
No employment= no purpose
Isolated from community
Knowing they're close to death
Christian tevahings about caring for the elderly
5/10 commandments 'HOnor your mother and father'
Leviticus 19:32 'stand up in the presence of the aged and show respect for the elderly'
1 Timothy 5:3-4 'give proper recognition to those widows who are really in need (...) children or grandchildren of a widow should practise their religion and care for their own family (...) pleasing God'
Hinduism teachings about caring for the elderly
Taittiriya Upanishad 'let your mother be god to you. Let your father be god to you'
Mahabharata 'whoever honours his father honours the creator himself. Whoever honours his mother, honours the earth itself'
One of the five daily duties - pitri yajna- is to respect and obey parents and the elderly
Eldest son is normally responsible for parents care as he is head of the family
When is euthanasia legal in the uk?
Suicide act 1961 decriminalise suicide
Non voluntary euthanise Is legal (doctors can turn off patients life support Machines)
Doctors can administer drugs to ease pain which might shorten lives
When is euthanasia illegal in the uk?
Active euthanasia (assisted suicide) = illegal in the Suicide Act of 1961. Punishment is up to 14 years in prison
What is euthanasia laws overseas?
Netherlands = first country to legalise euthanasia and assisted suicide in 2002 ; demand must be made in 'full consciousness of patient'
Legal in Switzerland by doctors, only prosecuted if acting in self interest
What is dignitas
A Swiss group helping with terminal illness/severe physical pain/mental illness to die (assisted by qualified doctors and nurses
There are always 2 people present that can testify the course of events
The patient is given a anti sickness drug then a lethal dose of another
Have assisted 1000+ people die
92 of them have been from uk (inc Daniel James)
None of the UK cases handed by Dignitas have involved criminal charges
Christian views on euthanasia?
Genesis 1:26 we are made in imago dei
1 Corinthians 3:16-17
Inherent sanctity of life
No one has the right to value anyone (even themselves as worthless)
Each human life is identical and equally valuable (old, sick, vegetative state, mental/physical handicapped = all same value as others)
Encourage palliative care
Hospices arose from Christianity
When people suffer on earth they entrust their future to the Christ
RCC 'euthanasia is a grave violation of the law and god since it its the deliberate killing of another person' (John Paul II)
RCC 'one can in no way permit the killing of one suffering from an incurable illness'
People should enter dying with trust in God and solidarity with other humans; should die w the dignity of letting themselves be unconditionally loved
National Conference of Catholic Bishops 'life is the most basic gift of a loving a god- a gift we have stewardship but not absolute dominion'
Doctrine of double effects allows pain relief treatment to relieve pain like with palliative care
Hindu views on suicide
Human life is precious (only achieved after 1000000s rebirths) and provides unique opportunity for individual to attain moksha (even gods don't have this)
Suicide puts individual back on evolutionary scale and hampers spiritual progress
Suicide puts an individual's spiritual clock in reverse
Referred to as atmahatya (self murder) and contravenes ahimsa
Allows fasting to end lives when people when serenity (not cos of depression or frustration). Gradual process which is for fulfilled people to give their friends/fam time and their body time to prepare for death. No desires / responsibilities left
Christian views on suicide?
Protestant church - self murder (contravenes 6/10 commandments) same sin as if killing another
Catholics pray for those who have committed suicide and knows God will judge the deceased fairly and justly
1997 Catechism of Catholic Church 'grave psychological disturbances, anguish or grave fear of hardship, suffering or torture can diminish the responsibility of the one committing suicide
Cattechism 2281 'suicide greatly contravenes to love thyself and is contrary to love for the living of God'
Catholics believe suicide is to wrongly assert dominion over what is gods (1 Corinthians 3:16) and is a refutation of its inherent sanctity