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Flashcards in MOL Deck (37):
1

Definition of IVF

In Vitro Fertilisation
When the parent's egg and sperm are collected and after a few days of incubation conception occurs and embryos have been created. These embryos are then placed in the woman's womb and hopefully result in pregnancy
25% success rate
Used when the woman cannot naturally conceive

2

Definition of AIH/AID

Artificial insemination by husband/donor
The donor/husband provided semen samples by masturbating. A doctor will then inject this semen into a woman's vagina when she ovulated and hopefully she'll get pregnant
AIH is used when father has a low sperm count
AID is used when father has a genetic disease he might pass on

3

Definition of surrogacy

When another woman carries a pregnancy on behalf of another woman. The resultant child is then brought up by the couple- the surrogate mother has no involvement in raising the child
Used when a mother cannot medically carry a pregnancy due to problems with the womb (eg womb removed cos of cancer/early menopause) meaning she is infertile
Illegal in the UK to pay someone to do it

4

Define a blood transfusion

When a patient is given extra blood as part of an operation

5

Definition of cloning

The scientific method by which animal or plants can be created which have exactly the same genetic makeup as the original because the DNA of the original is used

6

What are the two types of cloning

Therapeutic-
cloning a cell to produce an embryo to take stem cells from (medical research)
Legal in the UK
Reproductive-
Making an identical copy of an organism for the purpose of creating a new life (eg Dolly the Sheep)
Illegal in the UK

7

What are designer babies

Babies with gender and characteristics chosen by their parents, this is currently illegal

8

What is embryology

The study of human embryos

9

What is a fertility treatment?

Medical procedure to assist an infertile couple to have a child

10

Define genetic modification

Plants and animals that have had their natural make up altered by scientists

11

What is human experimentation?

Testing products, normally medicines, on payed human volunteers

12

What is a human-animal hybrid embryo?

Mixing human DNA and an animal egg to create an embryo that can be used for experimentation

13

What is human genetic engineering?

The modification of gene make up to change the features of a human

14

What are saviour siblings?

A child conceived through IVF with pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to the save the life of an incurably ill sibling through the use of the cord blood

15

What is a stem cell

A cell, mostly taken from a 4-5 day old embryo, whose role in the body is yet to be determined

16

What is a transplant surgery

When someone else organs are put into a patient

17

What is xenotransplantation

Transplantation/implantation of inhuman tissue, organs, cells or fluids into the human body
Occur because there is an insufficient supply of human organs for the demand

18

What are frankenstein technologies

Ways of creating life where the creator is taking god's place which many religions object to
Humans artificially creating life and thus distorting it

19

What is germ line gene therapy

The introduction of genes into reproductions cells or embryos to correct inherited defects that can cause disease

20

What is somatic gene therapy

Changes/fixes/replaces genes in one person to correct a inherited disease
Could be used to enhance existing characteristic (eg make someone faster)

21

Christian teachings that emphasise the sanctity of life

Genesis 1:26-27 'So God created man in his own image' = God is source of all life, we reflect God's image
6/10 Commandments = god alone should decide when human life ends
Psalm 139:13-16 'you knit me together in my mother's womb' = god knew us before we were born, this intimate relationship suggests all life should be respected
1 Corinthians 3:16 'you yourselves are God's temple' = not just a reflection of divinity but God lives in us, body's should be treated with the uttermost respect

22

Hindu teachings that emphasise the sanctity of life

Brahman exists in everything
Ahimsa ... We will accumulate neg karma if we oppose this

23

When does life begin? (3)

First heartbeat because it ends at the last heartbeat
Buddhists and Hindus believe life begins before conception but I diagram as there is nothing physically independent that attaches the baby to the parents
Moreover unlike the Catholic Church I don't believe life starts at conception either as a zygote is merely a mass of cells without functions and a central nervous system

24

Why do secular people want children

People to pass money/goods on to
Someone to care for u when your older
Confirming relationship to society's optimal ideals
Passing genes on (natural desire)
Children bring joy

25

Why do religious people want children?

Christians:
Genesis 1:28 'go forth and multiply'
Opportunity to receive and experience the blessing as children are thought to be a gift from God
Hindus:
In the grihastha ashrama it is the householders duty to have children
Hindus and Buddhists:
Gives other beings the opportunity to achieve moksha

26

What does the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 say?

Donors must remain anonymous (amended in 2005 that children can find out the name of their donor at 18yo)
A donor has no rights over any baby that may result
Frozen embryos may be stored up to 10 years
Scientific experiments may be carried out on an embryo but after 14 days it must be destroyed

27

What does the human fertilisation and embryology act 2008 say?

Sex selection of offspring for non medical reasons is banned
Recognises same sex couples as legal parents of children conceived through the use of donated sperm, eggs or embryo
Ensures regulation of human-animal hybrid embryos

28

Religious responses to genetic engineering?

Christianity:
Protestants believe it is a good thing if for healing purposes (Jesus was a healer)
Treating cells is working with god not against him
RCC believe life begins at conception
Sanctity of life
We should be satisfied with god's creation not try and change it

Hinduism:
Accumulates neg karma (somatic gene therapy)
Embryos destroyed will be inhibited from reaching moksha

29

Religious responses to cloning?

Christians:
Jesus healed the sick therefore therapeutic is okay
Could assist evolution
RCC believe life begins at conception
Disrespectful to play god
Psalm 139:13-16 = cloning means God isn't intimately involved
Messes up structure of traditional family
Removed the miracle of conception: children are now just manufactured products

Buddhism:
If Right Intention then it's fine
It will happen in the future
But does believe it disrupts the natural order of life

30

Religious responses to transplant surgery?

Christians:
Organs donated will be the beginning of healing for others (Jesus was a healer)
Matthew 22:38 (this is a great act of charity)
1 Corinthians 3:16 a) body is a temple so don't get transplants b) body is a temple so help others maintain theirs and encourage transplants
Knowledge to perform transplants is God given and a modern miracle

Hinduism:
Can accumulate karma when dead so brings u closer to moksha
Promotes daam (selfless living)
Your body is just a vehicle carrying ur atman
But cos of the varnas some Hindus may not permit people from different castes to give organs to people of different castes

31

Religious responses to blood transfusions

Christian:
Agape
Matthew 22:39 (act of charity)
Helping others heal
Jehovahs witnesses however refuse blood transfusions because they believe life is carried through the blood and therefore too sacred to swap. Leviticus 7:11 'for a life of a creature is in the blood'

Hinduism:
Can accumulate good karma
Promotes daam (selfless living)
But cos of the varnas some Hindus may not permit people from different castes to give blood to people of different castes

32

Secular pros/cons of blood transfusions and organs translations

Pro:
Act of compassion that can extend a life
Con:
Long term success not guaranteed
Recipient is on lifelong regime of drugs and hospital visits
Anti rejection drugs might have serious side effects
Black market of organs
Relative may feel pressured to donate an organ
Xenotransplantation raises issue about the status of animal/ passing disease into humans

33

Religious responses to ivf

Christian:
Protestant church think it's acceptable as biologically related to both parents
Humans are made in imago dei (Genesis 1:26) so we should use this technology
But ...
Story of Hannah 'Hannah had no children (...) because the Lord intended for her to have no children'

RCC think its unacceptable as the act is unnatural- a baby should be conceived through biological means
Also can result in death of many embryos that contravenes the SoL as life begins at conception
Would perhaps be acceptable if no spare embryos are made and no third party used
Also in Genesis 25:11 Isaac and Rebekah prayed for a son and their son was the result of 20 years of praying

Hinduism
Acceptable as the grihastha ashrama is to have children
But
Might be their karma not to have children?
Destroying embryos Contravenes with ahimsa

34

Religious responses to AIH

Christians:
RCC believe it's not acceptable as its 'unnatural'
Masturbation is a sin as it opposes the Natural Moral and in AIH the husband needs to masturbate
But
Anglicans think it's acceptable as wife's egg and husband sperm being used

Hinduism
Acceptable as the grihastha ashrama is to have children
But
Might be their karma not to have children?
Destroying embryos Contravenes with ahimsa

35

Religious responses to AID

Christians
Anglicans and Protestant believe it's not acceptable as 7/10 commandments condemns adultery and this uses another mans sperm (conception should only occur at wedlock)
Involves masturbation which iss against the Natural Moral Law

Hindus
Not acceptable cos the Varna is inherited from the father and the child wouldn't know what caste he belonged to

36

Religious responses to surrogacy

Christian Protestants
Genesis 16 = Hagar becomes surrogate for Sarah and leads to the birth of Ishmael

Not acceptable in other Christianity / Hinduism cos it involves 3rd party in a much bigger way than AID
Can strike at the heart of a family
Creates massive problems for all concerned

This is because the surrogate is the legal mother regardless of how much she's payed, this means she can decide to abort the baby/keep it. At birth the father can obtain equal rights to surrogate mother but the surrogate mother only looses her claim to the child if she signs a document 6 weeks after birth

37

What are the fertility treatments

IVF
AIH
AID
Surrogacy