MOD8- Repair & Regeneration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MOD8- Repair & Regeneration Deck (28):
1

what is healing by regeneration?

it is returning tissue to normal function ie restitution of specialised function

2

what is healing by repair

it is healing by fibrosis and scarring ie loss of specialised function

3

what are the 3 different cell population theoretically

labile cell population, stable cell population, permanent cell population

4

what is labile cell population

high normal turnover(excellent regenerative capacity) eg epithelium, active stem cell population, usually heal by regeneration

5

what is another name for stable cell populatio

quiescent cell population

6

what is stable/quiescent cell population

low physiological turnover (turnover can massively increase if needed ie has good regenerative capacity) eg liver, renal tubules

7

what is permanent cell population

they are cells which do not have physiological turnover ie long life cells & no regenerative capacity eg neurons & muscle cells

8

what is required in order for regeneration to take place properly

previously existed architectural framework

9

what does regeneration of tissue depends on?

previously existed architectural framework , stem cells

10

what is a stem cell niches

it is a specific anatomical places where stem cells are stored within the human body

11

what controls regeneration

proliferation of stem cells/amplifying cell compartment, covering of defect, contact inhibition (proliferating cells will stop proliferating as they come into contact with each other in epithelium), complex control by growth factors, cell-cell & cell-matrix interactions

12

when will healing by repair take place?

normal structures which can not be replaced

13

what are the 3 main components of granulation tissue?

new capillary loops (around the dead muscles), phagocytic cells (neutrophils, macrophages), (myo)fibroblast - fibroblast which has muscle filament involved

14

what locally can inhibit healing by repair

presence of infection, foreign bodies, hematoma (clogged blood stoping physically the healing of the wound especially after surgery), lack of blood supply, mechanical stress

15

what systemically inhibit the healing by repair

age, drugs - especially those creating a catabolic state (eg steroids), anaemia(restricting blood supply), diabetes (restricting blood supply & causes metabolic deficit in cells) , malnutrition, catabolic states, Vit C deficiency (cofactor for collagen), trace metal deficiency

16

what is catabolic state

state in which the body is breaking larger molecules into smaller molecules

17

what is healing by first intention in surgery inflicted wound

it mean a clean, uninfected surgical wound with good haemostasis and edges apposed eg with sutures or staples

18

what is organisation of a wound

it is turning a granulation tissue into fibrous scar

19

what is healing by second intention in surgery?

it is wound edges apposed (not toughing side to side) due to extensive loss of tissue etc

20

what is the process of fracture bone healing?

once fractured - haematoma is formed - haematoma is then organised - osteoblast lay down callus bone - callus bone - remodel according to mechanical stress - replace by lamellar bone eventually

21

what is callus bone

it is woven bone

22

what lay down callus bone

osteoblast

23

what will replace callus bone

lamellar bone wil

24

what will cause healing by second intention

extensive loss of tissue - apposition not physically possible - large haematoma - infection - present of foreign body

25

what make healing as a process different in the brain and bone?

neurones are terminally differentiate (not regenerable), supporting tissue = glial cells (rather than collagen and fibroblast)

however the overall healing process is the same really

26

instead of fibrosis, what process will take place instead?

gliosis - carried out by glial cells within the brain

27

what does damaged area of the brain is left with a cyst ?

it is because the damaged tissue is removed by glial cells rather than collagen & fibroblast ie no granulation tissues.

28

what is the function of myofibroblast

acquire bundles of muscle filament and attachment to adjacent cells and so they can contract the wound which makes it smaller