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Flashcards in Modified Atmosphere Packaging Deck (85)
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1

What is MAP?

modified atmosphere packaging:
selective permeability material package so that air surrounding the food has different composition than outside

2

What is the difference between CA and MAP?

controlled atmosphere: continuous control (adjustable, stays constant)

mod. atmosphere packaging: depends only on package properties, no further control once package is sealed

3

Why are MAP becoming more in demand? (4)

natural
retains quality
longer shelf life
convenience

4

How can O2 damage food?

oxidation
discoloration
microbes -> decomposition
damage from insects/vermin

5

The effects of O2 will cause loss of: (4)

freshness
quality
taste/flavor
nutrition

6

Advantages of MAP: (5)

1. Longer shelf life (can market more places, make bigger quantities, less shelf-reloading)
2. better use of labor/equipment
3. less transport $$
4. less storage $$
5. sales enhancement

7

What positive impacts does increased shelf life have? (3)

less shelf re-stocking
increased market areas
can buy/manufacture larger quantities

8

Disadvantages of MAP: (5)

Cost (package, equipment, films, gases, QC...)
slower throughput of packages
leakage (package failure)
secondary spoilage problems
dangerous organisms growth??

9

Methods of atmosphere modification: (4)

vacuum packaging
gas packaging
gas absorbents
gas generators

10

What is vacuum packaging?

removed all/most air inside package (without adding another gas)

remove air -> seal

11

advantages of vacuum package: (2)

longer storage life (up to 5x as long as refrigerated food)

no freezer burn

complete barrier

12

_____ is the material used for vacuum packaging

laminated films (strength + barrier properties)

13

vacuum packaging machines: (3)

chamber vacuum
belt vacuum chamber
thermoform-fill-seal

14

forms of vacuum packaging:

transformed VP trays
skin packaging

15

The materials used for VP trays:

Top web + tray (same construction)

Outer: PA or PET
middle: PVC or PVDC coated
inside: LDPE or EVA or Ionomer

16

the materials used for vacuum skin packaging:

PVDC coated
ionomer (Surlyn)

17

In vacuum packaging, surlyn is often found as the ____ layer

innermost

18

3 forms of myglobin and their appearances;

myoglobin (dark red)
oxymyoglobin (bright red)
metmyoglobin (brown)

19

Conversion between forms of myoglobin happens due to what reactions?

oxidation, reduction
oxygenation, de-oxygenation

20

The major difference between metmyoglobin and the other myoglobins:

Fe is oxidized (Fe3+, not Fe2+)

21

T/F: meat with a purple appearance has been oxidized and is likely not fresh

False; purple meat is deoxymyoglobin

22

What is 'meat blooming?'

oxidation

23

Which has greater OTR, VP packaging for fresh meat, or for processed meat? Why?

fresh meat packaging (lower barrier properties)

processed meat need even less O2 contact - for minimum degradation of nitrosomyoglobin

24

The VP films with lowest OTR (best barrier) are used for _____ meat, and ________

cured meat
O2-sensitive products

25

The greater the barrier properties of the vacuum package, the ______ the color of the meat

more purple (more myoglobin)

26

is the purple color from myoglobin permanent? What about the brown from metmyoglobin?

purple: NO - when package is opened (expose to air) quickly turns red...and eventually brown

brown: permanent (unless chemically reduce it)

27

What are some products that use VP?

fresh/frozen/process/cured meats
fresh/frozen fish (+ breaded products)
fresh/frozen poultry
coffee
some bakery good

28

Factors influencing shelf life of VP products: (5)

raw material quality (microbe count, pH)
temp control
hygiene control
time prior to packaging
film permeability

29

The higher the pH, the (faster/slower) the meat spoils in VP

faster

30

What meat has the longest shelf life in VP

beef