Module 1 Flashcards Preview

BMA - SEMESTER 2 > Module 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 1 Deck (101):
1

define joint

where 2 or more bones meet which facilitates movement

2

function of cartilage

- supports body structures
- connects bone
- maintains shape
- resists compression
- has tensile strength (resists stretching and twisting)

3

what is cartilage composed of

- chondrocytes
- extracellular matrix

4

what is the extracellular matrix made up of

- ground substances
- collagen
- elastin fibre

5

list the 3 different types of cartilage

- hyaline cartilage
- elastic cartilage
- fibrocartilage

6

Features of Hyaline Cartilage

- most abundant
- covers ends of articulating bones = articular cartilage
- connects the ribs to the sternum = costal cartilage
- forms the epiphyseal plates of bones

7

Features of Elastic Cartilage

- maintains shape
- forms auricle of the ear

8

Features of Fibrocartilage

- forms knee joint
- connects individual vertebra = intervertebral discs
- connects hip bones = pubic symphysis

9

List the functions of the bones

1. Support
2. Protection
3. Storage of Minerals + Trigylicerides
4. Blood Cell production
5. Movement

10

Function of Bones - Support

provides a framework that supports entire body

11

Function of Bones - Protection

bones surround and enclose body tissues and organs

12

Function of Bones - Storage of Minerals + Trigylicerides

- bones store minerals
- bone continually deposits + withdraws calcium and phosphate into and from the blood to maintain homeostatic blood concentrations

13

Functions of Bones - Blood Cell Production

- bones produce RBC, WBC and platlets
- haematopoiesis occurs within red bone marrow

14

Functions of Bones - Movement

- bones act as levers to move body parts
- attach directly or indirectly

15

List the 3 connective tissue layers

- Endomysium
- Perimysium
- Epimysium

- all three layers connects to form tendon

16

define origin

- site of muscle attachment to bone
- bone does not move when muscle contracts

17

define insertion

- moveable point og muscle attachment
- bone moves when muscle contracts

18

define the axial skeleton

- forms longitudinal axis of the body and includes the
- skull, vertebral column, rib cage

19

how many cervical vertebrae

7

20

how many thoracic vertebrae

12

21

how many lumbar vertebrae

5

22

how many sacral vertebrae

3

23

define the appendicular skeleton

connects limbs to axial skeleton
- upper limbs
- lower limbs
- shoulder girdles
- pelvic girdles

24

List how bones are classified as

- long bones
- short bones
- flat bones
- irregular bones

25

list the long bones

all limbs bones except: patella, carpal/tarsals, diaphysis + epiphysis

26

list the short bones

small cubed shaped bones e.g. carpals
patella (sesamoid bone)

27

list the flat bones

- thin
- flat
- often curved
- e.g. sternum, ribs, clavicle, scapulae, most skull bones

28

list the irregular bones

- complex shaped
- e.g. vertebrae, hip bones

29

define tuberosity

a round roughened projection

30

define trochanter

a large, irregular shaped projection

31

define tubercle

a small rounded projection

32

define spine

a pointed projection

33

define process

a bony bump

34

define crest

a prominent bony ridge

35

define malleolus

a projection shaped like hammer head

36

define head

rounded expansion at the end of bone

37

define condyle

smooth rounded surface at the end of a bone

38

define foramen

a round or oval opening

39

define canal or meatus

passageway through a bone

40

list types of connective tissue

- osseous tissue
- adipose tissue (yellow bone marrow) and - - hyaline cartilage

41

list types of nervous tissue

- sensory neurons

42

list types of muscle and epithelial tissue

- blood vessels

43

what does collagen fibres provide bones

- flexibility + tensile strength
- ability to resist stretching and twisting

44

what does calcium phosphate crystals provide to bone

- hard
- compressive strength
- resists compression forces

45

list the specialised cells found in bone

- osteoprogenitor cells
- osteoblasts
- osteoclasts
- osteocytes

46

osteoprogeniter cells

stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts

47

osteobasts

bone building cells that secrete collagen fibres + ground substances

48

osteoclasts

bone resorbing cells that break down the matrix and release stored minerals

49

osteocytes

mature bone cells that maintain the matrix

50

what is the outer connective tissue membrane of a bone

- periosteum
- covers compact bone
- contains blood vessels and nerves

51

what is the internal connective tissue membrane of bone

- endosteum
- covers spongy bone

52

describe compact bone

- osseous tissue arranged into osteons
- dense
- smooth

53

describe an osteon

- runs parallel to the long axis of the bone
consists of:
- central canal (blood vessels + nerves)
- concentric circles (hollow cylinders) of matrix
- osteocytes
- acts as a weight bearing pillar

54

describe spongy bone

- osseous tissue arranged into an irregular lattice of thin needle like structures = trabeculae
- reduces weight of bone

55

describe trabeculae

resist forces from all directions and transfer weight without breaking

56

what is the purpose of interstitial growth

lengthens bones

57

what is the purpose of appositional growth

widens bones

58

In interstitial growth what occurs at the epiphyseal plates of long bones ?

1. new cartilage forms at top of plate
2. bone replaces old cartilage at bottom of plate
3. diaphysis lengthens

- rate of new cartilage maintains thickness

59

In appositional groth what occurs at the outer surface of all bones ?

1. osteoblasts beneath periosteum compact bone + bone widens

2. osteoclasts slowly remove old matrix from inner surface to enlarge medullary cavity + prevents bones from becoming too heavy

60

describe bone remodelling

maintains bone mass + strength and replaces old matrix with new matrix

bone deposition = rate of resorption (where osteoclasts break down old matrix)

61

list the factors that affect bone growth + remodelling

- calcium
- phosphate
- vitamin C, A, D
- vitamins k + B12
- weight bearing exercises

62

closed (simple) fracture

broken bone, doesn't break skin

63

open (compound) fracture

broken bone protrudes skin

64

comminuted fracture

bone fragments into 3+ pieces

65

greenstick fracture

incomplete break

66

compression fracture

bone crushed

67

spiral fracture

ragged brake that occurs w/ twisting

68

epiphyseal fracture

bone breaks along epiphyseal plate

69

transverse fracture

bone breaks along own axis

70

depressed fracture

broken bone pressed inwards

71

avulsion fracture

bone fragment tears away from main mass of bone

72

pathological fracture

caused by disease that weakens bone structure e.g. osteoporosis

73

colles fracture

break down of the distal end of radius

74

scaphoid fracture

common carpal bone fracture

75

potts fracture

fracture of both tibia + fibula

76

what are the 3 stages of fracture treatment

1. Reduction
(realignment of bone ends)

2. Immobilisation
(sling etc)

3. Rehabilitation
(restore function)

77

list the 4 steps of fracture repair

1. Haematoma forms
2. Fibrocatilaginous callus forms
3. Bony callus forms
4. Bone remodelling

78

Fracture Repair - Step 1 Haematoma Forms

- torn bloos vessels haemorrhage
- clot forms
- site = swollen

79

Fracture repair - Step 2 - Fibrocartilagionoous Callus forms

- fibroblasts produce collagen
- chondrocytes produce collagen
- fibrocatrilaginous callus splints broken bone ends

80

Fracture Repair - Step 3 - Bony callus Forms

- fibrocartilaginous callus is converted to spongy bone
- bone ends firmly united

81

Fracture Repair - Step 4 - Bone Remodelling

- compact bone replaces spongy bone at bone surface or diaphysis of long bone
- osteoclasts remove excess bone
- bone returns to normal shape

82

Osteomalacia/ rickets (children)

- bones poorly mineralised
- lack calcium phosphate crystals
- bones are soft, flexible, easily deformed
- insufficient intake of calcium + vitamin D

83

Osteogenesis Imperfect (brittle bone disease)

- congenital bone disorder
- affects quality and quantity of collagen
- brittle and easily fractured

84

list how joints are functionally classified as:

- synarthrosis (immovable)

- amphiarthosis (slightly movable)

- diarthrosis (freely moveable)

85

list how joints are structurally classified as

- fibrous
- cartilaginous
- synovial

(based on connective tissue that binds articulating bones)

86

characteristics of a fibrous joint

- united by fibrous connective tissue
- joint cavity absent
- immovable (synarthrosis) or slightly movable (amphiarthosis)

87

sutures

- immovable fibrous joints that unite the bone of skull

88

tibiofibular joint

slightly movable fibrous joint
unites tibia + fibular joint

89

characteristics of cartilaginous joints

articulating bones united by cartilage
- joint cavity absent
- immovable or slightly movable

90

characteristics of synovial joints

- articulating bone are covered in articulating cartilage
- joint cavity present
- freely movable
- six types according to movement

91

Synovial Joint - Articulating capsule

- outer fibrous layer = stabilises connective bones
- inner synovial membrane = produces synovial fluid

- together encloses joint

92

Synovial joint - joint cavity

separates articulating bones and contains synovial fluid

93

Synovial Joint - articulating cartilage

covers ends of each articulating bone
reinforces ligament
shock absorption, reduces friction

94

Synovial Joint - reinforcing ligament

stabilises synovial joint

95

list the additional structures of a synovial joint

Menisci
Muscle tendons
Bursae and Tendon Sheaths (bags of fluid, reduces friction)
Fat Pads

96

Types of Synovial Joint - Pivot joint

allows rotation
e.g. atlas axis joint

97

Types of Synovial Joint - Plane joint

- allows gliding movements
e.g. intercapral and inter tarsal joints

98

Types of Synovial Joint - Conylar joints

allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and circumduction
e.g. knuckle joint

99

Types of Synovial Joint - Saddle Joint

allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction + circumduction

100

Types of Synovial Joint - Hinge joint

allows flexion, extension,
eg. knee, elbow, ankle

101

Types of Synovial Joint - Ball and Socket Joint

allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, rotation
e.g. shoulder + hip joint