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Flashcards in MODULE 1 Deck (109):
1

Role of Ligaments

Connect articulating bones at a joint, stabilise connecting bones

2

Role and composition of Cartilage

Has tensile strength - composed of chondrocytes and an extracellular matrix

3

Hyaline Cartilage

Articular cartilage, costal cartilage (ribs to sternum), forms epiphyseal plate

4

Elastic Cartilage

Forms the oracle of the ear

5

Fibrocartilage

Forms menisci, connects intervertebral discs, connects pubic symphysis

6

Function of Bones

Support, protection, storage of minerals and triglycerides, blood cell production and movement

7

Origin

The fixed point of muscle attachment

8

Insertion

Moveable point of muscle attachment

9

What is included within the axial skeleton?

Skull, vertebral column, rib cage

10

What is included within the appendicular skeleton?

Upper limbs, lower limbs, shoulder girdles, pelvic girdle

11

Connective tissue contains

Osseous tissue, adipose tissue (yellow bone marrow) and hyaline cartilage (growth plates)

12

Nervous tissue contains

Sensory neurons

13

Muscle tissue and Epithelial tissue contains

Blood vessels

14

Osseous tissue contains

specialised cells and an extracellular matrix

15

The Matrix consists of

ground substance, collagen fibres and calcium phosphate crystals

16

Collagen Fibres provide

flexibility and tensile strength

17

Calcium Phosphate Crystals

make our bones hard and provide compressive strength

18

Osteoprogenitor Cells are

Stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts

19

Osteoblasts are

bone "building" cells that secrete collagen fibres and ground substance

20

Osteoclasts are

bone "reabsorbing" cells that break down the matrix and release stored minerals

21

Osteocytes are

mature bone cells that maintain the matrix

22

Periosteum

outer connective tissue membrane, covers contact bone, contains blood vessels and nerves

23

Endosteum

internal connective tissue membrane, covers spongy bone

24

Compact Bone

Osseous tissue arranged into osteons, each osteon: runs parallel to the long axis of bone. Consists of: a central canal (blood vessels and nerves), concentric circles of matrix, osteocytes (between matrix). Acts as a tiny weight bearing pillar.

25

Spongy Bone

Osseous tissue is arranged into an irregular lattice of thin needle like structures called trabeculae. Which resist forces from all directions and transfer weight. Lighter than compact bone, mainly found in the proximal and distal epiphysis.

26

What is and where does interstitial growth occur?

Bones lengthen by interstitial growth, occurs at the epiphyseal plates of long bones

27

What is and where does appositional growth occur?

Bones widen by appositional growth, occurs at the outer surface of all bones

28

What is growth controlled by during childhood?

Growth hormone and thyroid hormone

29

What is growth controlled by during adolescence?

Growth hormone, thyroid hormone, testosterone and oestrogen

30

Bone remodelling

Maintains bone mass and strength, replaces old matrix with new matrix

31

Bone resorption

osteoclasts break down old matrix

32

Bone deposition

osetoblasts produce new matrix

33

The rate of bone deposition and resorption...

equals each other, bone mass remains constant in healthy young adults

34

At around 30 years of age...

loss of bone mass occurs where the rate of resorption exceeds the rate of deposition

35

Factors that affect bone growth:

Calcium and phosphate, vitamin C (collagen synthesis), vitamin A (stimulates osteoblast activity), vitamin D (Ca2+ absorption), vitamins K and B12 (synthesis of proteins that form ground substance), weight bearing exercises

36

Fractures: closed (simple)

broken bone does not break the skin

37

Fractures: open (compound)

broken bone protrudes through skin

38

Fractures: comminute

bone fragments into 3 or more pieces

39

Fractures: greenstick

incomplete break

40

Fractures: compression

bone is crushed

41

Fractures: spiral

ragged break that occurs with excessive twisting

42

Fractures: epiphyseal

bone breaks along epiphyseal plate

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Fractures: transverse

bone breaks across its long axis

44

Fractures: depressed

broken bone is pressed inward

45

Fractures: avulsion

bone fragment tears away from main mass of bone - usually occurs at the site of muscle tendon or ligament attachment

46

Fractures: Pathological

caused by a disease that weakens bone structure e.g. osteoporosis

47

Fractures: Colles

break at the distal end of the radius

48

Fractures: scaphoid

common carpal bone fracture

49

Fractures: Pott's

fracture of both the tibia and the fibula

50

Fracture Treatment: reduction

the realignment of bone ends

51

Fracture Treatment: immobilisation

of realigned bones, i.e. cast, sling, brace etc.

52

Fracture Treatment: rehabilitation

restore function

53

Fracture repair step 1:

Haematoma forms - torn blood vessels haemorrhage, clot forms, site swollen and sore

54

Fracture repair step 2:

Fibrocartilaginous callus forms - fibroblasts produce collagen fibres, chondrocytes produce cartilage, fibrocartilaginous callus splints broken bone ends.

55

Fracture repair step 3:

Bony callus forms - fibrocartilaginous callus is converted to spongy bone, bone ends firmly reunited

56

Fracture repair step 4:

Bone remodelling - compact bone replaces spongy bone at the bone surface (diaphysis of long bone), osteoclasts remove excess bone, bone returns to normal shape

57

What is Osteomalacia (adults) and Rickets (children)?

bones are poorly mineralised, lack calcium phosphate crystals, bones are soft, flexible an deform easily. Caused by insufficient calcium intake or vitamin D deficiency.

58

Osteogenesis imperfecta is

Brittle bone disease, congenital bone disorder that affects the quantity or the quality of collagen fibres, no cure, treatment involves strengthening bones to reduce incidence of fractures

59

Osteoporosis is where

bone resorption outpaces bone deposition, reduction in bone mass

60

Synarthrosis

immoveable joint

61

Amphiathrosis

slightly moveable joint

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Diarthrosis

freely moveable joint

63

Fibrous joints

Articulating bones united by fibrous connective tissue. Joint cavity absent, are synarthrosis or amphiathrosis joints

64

Sutures

immoveable fibrous joints that unite the bone of the skull

65

Tibiofibular joint

slightly moveable fibrous joints that unites tibia and fibula

66

Cartilaginous joints

Articulating bones are united by cartilage, hyaline or fibrocartilage, joint cavity absent, synarthrosis or amphiathrosis

67

Synovial joints

Articulating bone ends are covered in articular cartilage, joint cavity present, diarthrosis joints.

68

The 5 features that define a synovial joint are:

articular capsule, joint cavity, synovial fluid, articular cartilage and reinforcing ligament

69

Articular capsule, 2 layers include...

surrounds entire joint and encloses joint cavity. Tough outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial membrane

70

Joint cavity

separates articulating bones and contains synovial fluid

71

Synovial fluid helps with

shock absorption, reduces friction, circulates to supply oxygen and nutrients to chondrocytes and remove wastes

72

Articular cartilage

covers the end of each articulating bone, shock absorption, reduces friction

73

Reinforcing ligaments

stabilises synovial joints

74

Menisci

stabilise synovial joints, reduce friction, shock absorption

75

Muscle tendons

stabilise synovial joints

76

Bursae

bags of synovial fluid, reduce friction between adjacent joint structures

77

Tendon sheaths

tubular synovial fluid which wraps around a tendon

78

Bursa

small synovial fluid pocket that lies between two structures e.g. a tendon and bone or a ligament and bone

79

Fat pads

mass of adipose tissue, protect joint structures

80

Synovial joints allow: 1

Angular movements - flexion, extension, adduction abduction, circumduction, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

81

Synovial joints allow: 2

Rotational movements - rotation, supination, pronation

82

Synovial joints allow: 3

Special movements - protraction, retraction, opposition, depression, elevation, inversion, eversion

83

Type of synovial joint: pivot joint

allows rotation

84

Type of synovial joint: plane joint

allows gliding movements e.g. intercarpal and intertarsal joints

85

Type of synovial joint: condylar joint

allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and circumduction

86

Type of synovial joint: saddle joint

allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction

87

Type of synovial joint: hinge joint

allows flexion and extension

88

Type of synovial joint: ball and socket joint

allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction and rotation

89

Sprains

ligaments are stretched or torn, poorly vascularised

90

Oseteoarthritis is

a form of chronic arthritis, degenerative joint disease

91

Rheumatoid arthritis is

autoimmune disease that targets the synovial membrane lining synovial joints

92

Functions of muscle tissues: skeletal, cardiac and smooth

Produces body movements, maintains posture and body position, stabilises joints, generates heat

93

Excitability

(responsiveness) the ability to receive and respond to a stimulus

94

Contractibility

the ability to shorten forcibly when stimulated

95

Extensibility

the ability to be stretched, for example when relaxed

96

Elasticity

the ability to recoil to resting length after it has been stretched

97

Skeletal muscle composition and function

composed of skeletal muscle fibres, maintains posture, stabilises joints and generates heat, voluntary and controlled by the somatic nervous system

98

Cardiac muscle composition and function

Located in the heart and forms the bulk of myocardium, autonomic nervous system (involuntary)

99

Smooth muscle composition and function

found mainly in the walls of hollow visceral organs, involuntary (ANS), contractions force fluid and other substances through internal body channels, regulate passage of substances through internal body openings, alter blood vessel and pupil diameter

100

Skeletal Muscles: Endomysium

is the innermost membrane and it encloses each individual muscle fibre

101

Skeletal Muscles: Perimysium

surrounds a bundle of muscle fibres, called a fascicle

102

Skeletal Muscles: Epimysium

the outer membrane that covers the entire skeletal muscle, provide strength and support, can attach a muscle directly to surface of bone

103

The 3 events that lead to muscle contraction:

Neural stimulation, excitation-contraction coupling and contraction "sliding filament theory"

104

1. Neural Stimulation

somatic nervous system stimulates skeletal muscle contraction, action potentials are generated and sent to skeletal muscles via lower motor neurons, chemical synapse forms (neuromuscular junction)

105

2. Excitation-Contraction Coupling

is a sequence of events that link the action potential to contraction. An electrical signal (excitation) and a mechanical response (contraction) is coupled

106

3. Contraction "sliding filament theory"

contraction begins when the myosin heads bind to the active sites on actin. Myosin generates force pulling them towards the centre of the sarcomere. Thin filaments slide past the thick filaments and the sarcomere shortens. The entire muscle ends up shortening (lengths of filaments DO NOT CHANGE, just slide past each other)

107

What is a motor unit?

one lower motor neuron and all the muscle fibres it innervates

108

What is a small motor unit?

4-6 muscle fibres innervate muscles that control fine, delicate movements

109

What is a large motor unit?

1000-2000 muscle fibres innervate muscles that control coarse, powerful movements