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Flashcards in module 1.1 Deck (25)
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1

Having camouflage that matches an animal's typical surroundings in order to provide protection from predators is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.

• evolutionary
• Functional
• ontogenic
• physiological

functional

2

Which of the following would be a physiological explanation for why birds sing?

• Testosterone causes the growth of certain brain areas which control singing in certain birds.
• Birds sing due to instinct.
• Birds singe because they hear their song early in life and form a template which controls later singing.
• Birds sing to defend territories and attract mates.

Testosterone causes the growth of certain brain areas which control singing in certain birds.

3

The use of certain behaviors for camouflage is something that would be covered with the ____ explanation.

• Functional
• ontogenic
• evolutionary
• physiological

functional

4

Biological psychologists are primarily interested in the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and ____.

• social influence on attitudes
• developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience
• use of reinforcement to change behavior
• mental well-being of plants

developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience

5

In certain species of songbirds, development of the song requires the opportunity to hear the appropriate song during a sensitive period in life as well as the genes to prepare them to learn the song. This is a(n) ____ explanation of birdsong.

• physiological
• Ontogenic
• evolutionary
• functional

Ontogenic*

6

A(n) ____ explanation describes why a structure of behavior evolved as it did.

• Functional
• ontogenic
• physiological
• evolutionary

Functional*

7

A(n) ____ explanation describes how a structure or behavior develops, including the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions.

• functional
• Ontogenic
• physiological
• evolutionary

Ontogenic*

8

The field of biological psychology presents a range of career options in ____ and ____.

• research; sociology
• therapy; philosophy
• research; therapy
• therapy; sociology

research; therapy*

9

Which of the following is TRUE about genetic drift?

• It occurs more often in large populations.
• It occurs when species move to a new location.
• It takes thousands of years to happen.
• It occurs more often in small populations.

It occurs more often in small populations.

10

The amygdala appears to be an important part of the brain for experiencing fear. Which of the following is an example of a functional explanation of fear?

• Describing the anatomical connections between the amygdala and other parts of the brain.
• Describing the neurotransmitters involved in the activity of the amygdala
• Describing why fear improves the chances for survival.
• Describing how fears develop in infancy.

Describing why fear improves the chances for survival.

11

A(n) ____ explanation would describe eating in terms of the hypothalamus affecting insulin production, which affects the availability of glucose in cells.

• Physiological
• ontogenic
• evolutionary
• functional

Physiological

12

At the microscopic level, we find two kinds of cells in the brain: ____.

• molecules and mitochondria
• mitochondria and glia
• neurons and glia
• neurons and molecules

neurons and glia

13

The question “Given this universe composed of matter and energy, why is there such a thing as consciousness?” is called the ____.

• cosmic force question
• mind-body problem
• universal question
• biological problem

mind-body problem

14

A(n) ____ explanation of human behavior is often controversial, because many behaviors alleged to be part of our evolutionary heritage could have been learned instead.

• physiological
• ontogenic
• Evolutionary
• functional

Evolutionary

15

The sea dragon is a fish that looks and acts like kelp in order to attract its food. The explanation that proposed that this is due to genetic modification that expands smaller appendages already present in these fish's ancestors would be the ____ explanation.

• functional
• Evolutionary
• ontogenic
• biological

Evolutionary

16

In a small population of sheep, the dominant male may produce many more offspring than the other males, spreading his genes. This is an example of ...

• a physiological explanation.
• artificial selection.
• genetic drift.
• recombination.

genetic drift.

17

A fundamental property is one that ____.

• answers all questions
• occurs only in certain parts of the nervous system
• cannot be reduced to something else
• cannot be explained

cannot be reduced to something else

18

Explaining differences in running speed as a function of differences in muscle fiber types is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.

• ontogenic
• Physiological
• evolutionary
• functional

Physiological

19

In most bird species, only the male sings and then only in his own territory during the reproductive season. This is to attract females and to ward off other males, which serves to improve their chances of mating. This behavior demonstrates...

• that physiological explanations are preferred over other kinds of explanations.
• learning during a critical period.
• that physiological, ontogenic, evolutionary, and functional explanations are mutually exclusive.
• how physiological, ontogenic, evolutionary, and functional explanations can all be used to explain the same behavior.

how physiological, ontogenic, evolutionary, and functional explanations can all be used to explain the same behavior.

20

How human language develops as a result of genes and the opportunity to hear language during a sensitive period in early life is an examples of a(n) ____ explanation.

• physiological
• Ontogenic
• evolutionary
• functional

Ontogenic

21

If a person believes that hormones released at different stages of the menstrual cycle affect a person's mood, then it would be considered a(n) ____ explanation.

• functional
• ontogenic
• Physiological
• evolutionary

Physiological

22

Chalmers' fundamental "hard problem" is ...

• knowing why we sleep.
• understanding how neurotransmitters are created.
• wondering how someone can be a dualist.
• knowing why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness.

knowing why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness.

23

Consciousness does not occur when...

• you are awake.
• you are dreaming
• you are daydreaming.
• you are in dreamless sleep.

you are in dreamless sleep

24

An evolutionary explanation of why we get goose bumps when cold is that ...

• the sympathetic nervous system is activated.
• we inherited the mechanism from our remote ancestors who had more hair.
• it keeps us warm.
• children are often raised in cold environments

we inherited the mechanism from our remote ancestors who had more hair

25

Which type of explanation describes how a structure or behavior develops?

• Physiological
• Ontogenic
• Evolutionary
• Functional

Ontogenic