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1

When researchers try to estimate the heritability of a human behavior, what are the main kinds of individuals they consider?

>Twins and adopted children
>People from non-western cultures
>Newborns and infants
>Uneducated people living in educated societies

Twins and adopted children

2

Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another are:

• enzymes
• mutations
• nucleic acids
• genes

genes

3

Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another are:

• enzymes
• mutations
• nucleic acids
• genes

genes

4

Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded molecules of:

• deoxyribonucleic acid
• ribonucleic acid
• autosomal genes
• recombination genes

deoxyribonucleic acid

5

A strand of DNA serves as a template (model) for the synthesis of ___________.

• chromosomes
• RNA
• proteins
• carbohydrates

RNA

6

Enzymes serve as __________.

• genetic templates
• physiological markers of chemical reactions in the body
• biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body
• catalysts for the synthesis of protein molecules

biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body

7

Chemically, what is the route from genes to their expression?

• DNA to proteins to RNA
• DNA to RNA to proteins
• proteins to DNA to RNA
• RNA to DNA to proteins

DNA to RNA to proteins

8

A person with two recessive genes is considered to be _____ for that trait.

• Homozygous
• heterozygous
• unitary
• marginal

Homozygous

9

Recessive genes manifest their effects only when the individual is ____ for them.

• sex limited
• homo sapien
• homozygous
• heterozygous

homozygous

10

Suppose "A" is a dominant gene for the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide and "a" is a recessive gene for inability to taste it. Which of the following couple could possibly have both a child who tastes it and a child who does not?

• father AA, mother aa
• father Aa, mother AA
• father Aa, mother Aa
• father AA, mother AA

father Aa, mother Aa

11

Suppose all people with blonde hair have blue eyes and all people with dark hair have brown eyes. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation?

• Hair color is dominant over eye color.
• There is no genetic variability in hair or eye color in the population.
• Blue eyes are dominant over brown eyes.
• Hair and eye color are on the same chromosome.

Hair and eye color are on the same chromosome.

12

Suppose that adopted children are more similar to their biological parents than their adaptive parents in their preferences for a flavor of ice cream. Which of the following would be true?

• Heritability of this trait is high.
• Preferences for ice cream are determined solely by the environment.
• Flavors of ice cream are naturally selected.
• Heritability of this trait is low.

Heritability of this trait is high.

13

Almost all humans have 23 pairs of which of the following?

• RNA
• Chromosomes
• Genes
• Corduroys

Chromosomes

14

An autosomal gene is a gene:

• On the X chromosome.
• On the Y chromosome.
• On any chromosome other than the X or Y chromosome.
• That shows no evidence of crossing over.

On any chromosome other than the X or Y chromosome.

15

Which of the following pairs of sex chromosomes would be found in a normal male mammal?

• XX
• XY
• YY
• YZ

XY

16

In humans, which chromosome(s) contain(s) few genes?

• All human chromosomes contain few genes.
• Both the X and Y chromosomes contain few genes.
• The X chromosome contains few genes.
• The Y chromosome contains few genes.

The Y chromosome contains few genes.

17

In general, when biologists speak of sex-linked genes they are referring to genes on:

• autosomal chromosomes
• more than one chromosome
• the X chromosome
• the Y chromosome

the X chromosome

18

Color vision deficiency is more common in males than in females because it is controlled by a:

• sex-limited gene
• Y-linked gene
• dominant X-linked gene
• recessive X-linked gene

recessive X-linked gene

19

Sex-limited genes are found on:

• X chromosomes only
• Y chromosomes only
• X AND Y chromosomes
• any chromosomes

any chromosomes

20

A gene is found that controls the age at which a man grows bald, if at all. That gene seldom affects women, even if they have the gene. What kind of gene is this MOST likely to be?

• an X-linked gene
• a sex-limited gene
• a sex-linked dominant gene
• a sex-linked recessive gene

a sex-limited gene

21

Under what conditions are the effects of sex-limited genes demonstrated?

• When they are dominant
• When they are homozygous
• When particular hormones are present
• When they appear on the X chromosome

When particular hormones are present

22

If a group of individuals shares a highly similar environment, what effect does this have on the heritability estimate of a characteristic?

• Heritability will be low
• Heritability will be high
• Heritability estimates will be unaffected
• It is determined by the power of the environmental factors

Heritability will be high

23

If a trait has high heritability:

• hereditary differences account for none of the observed variations in that characteristic within that population.
• the environment cannot influence that trait.
• it is still possible for the environment to influence that trait.
• the trait is not influenced by heredity.

it is still possible for the environment to influence that trait.

24

Which of the following factors, if overlooked, may lead to an overestimation of heritability?

• Prenatal environment
• Low IQ
• Sex-linked genes
• RNA

Prenatal environment

25

Which of the following is an example of a genetically controlled condition that can be minimized by following a particular diet?

• Down-syndrome
• Color-blindness
• Epilepsy
• Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

26

Most mutations produce:

• dominant genes
• recessive genes
• sex-linked genes
• sex-limited genes

recessive genes

27

Which of the following is necessarily included in the concept of evolution?

• Species improvements from one generation to the next.
• "If you don't use it, you lose it."
• Generationally changing frequencies of various genes in the population.
• Improvements to the individual.

Generationally changing frequencies of various genes in the population.

28

What supports the argument that humans have NOT stopped evolving?

• Medicine and technology are keeping more people alive these days.
• More mutations will occur because of increased use of pesticides.
• Evolution is based on reproduction rates so as long as some people have more children than others do, their genes will spread.
• Humans are no longer subject to "survival of the fittest."

Evolution is based on reproduction rates so as long as some people have more children than others do, their genes will spread.

29

Why is a genetic explanation for altruism problematic?

• Only non-human animals exhibit altruistic behaviors
• Altruistic behaviors rarely benefit the individual performing them.
• Altruism is more common among the young than among adults.
• No behavior has been linked to any genes.

Altruistic behaviors rarely benefit the individual performing them.

30

Helping your neighbors (who are unrelated to you) rake their leaves because they helped you fix your car is an example of:

• kin selection
• reciprocal altruism
• natural selection
• group selection

reciprocal altruism