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Flashcards in Module 19 Deck (25):
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What are enzymes?

Proteins that induce chemical changes

1

What are the effects of neurotransmitters?

Can be excitatory or inhibitory DEPENDS on the receptor protein

Bonds with more than ONE receptor type

2

Name the two classes of neurotransmitters

Small molecules
Large molecules

3

What do the small molecule transmitters do?

Short-lasting effects

Act DIRECTLY on post-synaptic membrane to (change permeability) initiate new APs

4

What are the common small molecule transmitters?

Norepinephrine

Dopamine

Serotonin

Glutamate

GABA

5

Why are large molecule transmitters important?

Important for pain management (I.e morphine)

ALSO contain small molecule neurotransmitters in their synaptic vesicles

6

What do large molecules neurotransmitters do?

Act as neuromodulaters (modify neural activity)

Long lasting effects on post-synaptic neurons

Slow ONSET but longer duration responses

7

What is the role of acetylcholine?

Regulates forebrain activity

Inhibits BG activity

Cholinergic pathway- active in cognition and memory

8

What type of neurons are Acetylcholine?

Cholinergic neurons

9

Which neurotransmitters is the primary PNS?

Acetylcholine

10

How are the acetylcholine released? What does it control?

Myoneural junctions

Alpha motor neurons(spinal/cranial nerves)

Role: control voluntary movements

11

What is myasthenia gravis MG?

Disorder of myoneural junction

Not enough ACh at junction

12

Where is dopamine found?

In substantia nigra

13

Name the 2 systems of dopamine

Mesostriatal (midbrain/striatum)

Mesocortocal (midbrain/cortex)

14

What is the motor role of dopamine? What happens if you lose dopamine?

Role is to regulate motor function

LOSS: Parkinson's disease

15

What is the cognitive role of dopamine?

Important for memory

Cognitive function and motivation

Cocaine is a type of dopamine enhancing drug

16

What does drug treatment do?

Modifies neurotransmitter by

Blocking effect of transmitter
Simulate actions of transmitter

17

What is the role of norepinephrine?

Generation of REM sleep (vigilance/attention)

Treats depression!!

18

What three things are the serotonin concerned with?

Level of arousal

Slow wave sleep

Pain control

19

What is the effect of low levels of serotonin?

Depression

PROZAc ( anti-depressant drugs) enhance serotonin

Norepinephrine treats depression!

20

What is the GABA transmitter?

Major inhibitory transmitter in CNS

21

Which diseases are associated the GABA?

Huntington's chorea

Epilepsy

Anxiety disorders

22

Which drugs help to increase GABA levels?

Anti-anxiety medicines (Librium/Valium)

23

What is glutamate?

Most excitatory transmitter in CNS

24

T/F: if there are altercations in the project of glutamate in the CNS, it will cause Neurodegenerative diseases

TRUE