Module 2, Choose Your Vocab Flashcards Preview

English 211, Introduction to Linguistics > Module 2, Choose Your Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 2, Choose Your Vocab Deck (25)
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1

Phonology

the study of the abstract categories that organize the sound system of a language, like individual speech sounds and the ways sounds are grouped together

2

Spectrogram

a graphic representation of the frequency distribution of sound waves

3

Phoneme

the smallest and most basic unit of speech sounds. Signal a meaningful distinction between morphemes

4

Morpheme

the smallest element of language that carries meaning 'cat' 'happy'

5

Minimal pair

a pair of words that differ in only one sound, but differ in meaning 'mat, met'

6

Sonority Sequencing Principle

principle where segments with different manners of articulation are arranged into syllables so that each syllable has a single peak of sonority

7

Sonority

the relative 'loudness' of a speech sound. the 'auditory force'

8

Syllibication

assigning syllable structure to words

9

Cognates

a member of a pair of sounds that are opposed or distinguished by a particular phonetic feature

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epenthesis

the addition of one or more sounds to the interior of a word. Drawing/drawring.

11

onset

the beginning of a syllable. it can be 0 consonant, 1 consonants, or a cluster of consonants

12

Coda

the final margin of a syllable consisting of one or more consonants

13

Nucleus

the peak of sonority in a syllable, typically a vowel

14

Constituents

a sound produced with incomplete closure of the oral vocal tract

15

narrow transcription

a type of transcription that includes articulatory details, such as allophones. it uses dicratic marks [] instead of just virgiles //

16

Neutralisation

in a particular context, contrasts between different phonemes are neutralizes. Ex: Mary and Mery in some dialect. Different phonemes that are now..not different

17

Released Consonant

release of air that has been built up to make a consonant noise. type of allophone

18

Flap

a manner of articulation in which a sound is formed by a quick tapping movement of an articulator against a surface. flaps are allophones of stops

19

Stop

a manner of articulation in which the vocal tract is completely closed for some interval so that airflow ceases

20

Articulator

an anatomic structure capable of movements that form the sounds of speech (tongue, lips, jaw, velopharynx)

21

Aspiration

a fricative noise generated as air escapes through partly adducted vocal folds and into the upper cavities. Pin

22

Fricative

A manner of articulation in which a continuous noise is generated as air is channeled through a narrow articulatory constriction. Fish. Zip

23

Vowel epenthesis

the insertion of a vowel into a syllable

24

Maximal Onset Principle

Preferring to pronounce syllables with as many onsets as opposed to a coda 'tatatat' example

25

Final Devoicing

a voiced phoneme has a voiceless allophone in a word-final position. Not usually in American English