Language Acquisition Flashcards Preview

English 211, Introduction to Linguistics > Language Acquisition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language Acquisition Deck (42)
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1

Phonetics

The sounds of a langauge

2

Phonology

The sound patterns of a language

3

Morphology

Rules of word formation

4

Syntax

Howards combine into phrases and sentences

5

Innateness hypothesis or Nativist

The Innateness hypothesis argues that our ability to acquire language is innate. Children must be born with the capacity for language development.

6

Universal Grammar

Universal Grammar refers to the set of structural characteristics shared by all languages

7

Receptive language stage

Associating sounds with facial movements and learning word boundaries in speech (0-4 months).

8

Productive language stage

Babbling in multilingual sounds and gestures (4 months).

9

Babbling stage

Sounds more like parents' or household's language (10 months).

10

One word stage

Understanding and beginning to say many nouns (12 months).

11

Two words stage

Adding verbs and making sentences but missing words (18-24 months).

12

Full sentences stage

Speaking and understanding complex sentences (24+ months).

13

Theoretical linguistics

Theoretical linguistics is the branch of linguistics that inquires into the nature of language or languages without regard for practical application

14

Imitation

Children imitate what they hear. The theory is based on an empirical or behavioral approach

15

Reinforcement

Children learn through positive and negative reinforcement. Very little evidence to support.

16

Connectionist Theory

Claims that exposure to language develops and strengthens neural connections

17

Critical Period Hypothesis

There’s a critical time in development during which a language can be acquired like a native speaker

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Sensitive Period Hypothesis

A period of development begins and ends gradually, but there is a maximum period of sensitivity.

19

Pragmatic Cues

social context in which language is

20

Intentionality

Children draw inferences about a word's meaning from what is being done as the word is used.

21

Infant-directed speech

A distinctive mode of speech used in talking to infants and young children.

22

Associationist theory

Language development occurs as the result of the gradual strengthening of connections that matter.

23

Word

Arbitrary symbol used to refer to some thing

24

Lexicon

Dictionary of words

25

Function Words

Words that are not meaningful by themselves but give structure to language (articles).

26

Comprehension vocabulary

Words that infants understand

27

Fast Mapping

The way in which children quickly form an idea of the meaning of an unfamiliar word they hear in a familiar and highly structured social interaction.

28

Code switching

the practice of alternating between two or more languages or varieties of language in conversation

29

LAD Language acquisition device

The hypothetical tool in the human brain that lets children learn and understand language quickly. Theory developed by Noam Chomski.

30

Competence

Linguistic competence is concerned with the child’s grammar, linguistic input and construction of the grammatical structures