Morphology Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

English 211, Introduction to Linguistics > Morphology Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Morphology Chapter 4 Deck (46)
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1

affix

a type of bound morpheme--prefrix, infix, and suffix

2

affixation

attaching an affix to a base morpheme

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agglutinating language

language in which words are made up of a linear sequence of distinct morphemes and each component of meaning is represented by its own morpheme.

4

allomorph

Nondistinctive realizations of a particular morpheme that have the same function and are phonetically similar. For example, the English plural morpheme can appear as [s] as in cats, [z] as in dogs, or ['z] as in churches. Each of these three pronunciations is said to be an allomorph of the same morpheme.

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alternation

a morpheme that exhibits variations in its phological realization. examples include s/es dogs sounds like dogz

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ambiguity

a quality of langauge that makes speech open to multiple interpretations

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analytic language

a language that conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words like prepositions, and word order

8

bound morpheme

a morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme to create meaning

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bound root

root morphemes which cannot appear on its own. eg: receive (ceive) dissuade

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closed lexical category

morphemes that cannot be added to other words

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compounding

2 or more words that are tadded together to form a new word with an entirely new meaning

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conjunction

a word used to connect caluses or sentences (and, but, if)

13

content morpheme

morphemes that express content or meaning, like a bound verb or adjective

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content word

open class words that possess semantic content and contribute to the meaning of the sentence or phrase in which they occur

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derivation

a bound morpheme affix that changes the part of speech of the word when added. ie.. happy adds un to make it unhappy adjective to noun. new word, new meaning

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determiner

a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun to express reference of that noun in context. examples: articles (the, a, an) demonstrations (this that)

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form

a meaningful unit of speech

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free morpheme

a morpheme that can stand alone as words by themselves. 'boy' 'car'

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function morpheme

words that do not have clear meaning, but have grammatical functions. CLOSED. cannot be added to other morphemes. conjuctions, prepositions, article. eg 'he' 'we'

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function word

words that express syntactic relationships between units in a sentence and tie elements together dramatically "alex AND dallas"

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fusional language

languages that use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic or semantic features. Spanish is one

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hierarchical structure

words are made up of 1 or more morphemes

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homophony

sets of words that are pronounced the same but with different meaning

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incorporation

a phenomenon by which a grammatical category, such as a verb, forms a compound with its direct object (object incorporation) or adverbial modifier, while retaining its original syntactic function.

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infix

a bound morpheme added to the middle of a word to change its meaning

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inflection

A bound morpheme affix used to indicate aspects of the grammatical function of a word eg: s added to boy to make boys. all suffixes. do not change part of speech

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input

the processible language the learners are exposed to while listening or reading

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lexical category

lexical morphemes are known as open calss because you can add other morphemes to these words. nounds, verbs, and adjectives

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lexicon

vocabulary

30

morpheme

the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language