What do the primary sex organs do?
Produce and house sex cells
What do secondary sex organs do?
Provide the route by which sex cells unite
What are the male and female primary sex organs?
Male - Testes, sperm
Female - Ovaries, eggs
What are the secondary sex organs for female and male?
Male - A system of ducts, glands, and penis (which are charge for storing and transporting sperm)
Female - Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina
Inside the scrotum reside to testes. What do the testes due?
The organs that generate sperm and secrete testosterone
What is the spermatic cord?
Strand of connective tissue and muscle that extends from the abdomen to each testicle
Where is sperm produced?
Where is testosterone produced?
Leydig cells or interstitial cells of the testes
The vas deferens travels up the spermatic cord, through the inguinal canal, and into the pelvic cavity. What is the role of the vas deferens?
Transport system involved in the movement of sperm
Located at the base of the bladder, a pair of seminal vesicles (One for each vas deferens) secretes a thick, yellowish fluid into the ejaculatory duct. What is contained in this fluid?
Comprises about 60% of semen – contains fructose ( energy source for sperm motility) as well as other substances that nourish and ensure sperm motility
What is the head of the penis called
What is the other name for foreskin (the loose skin covering the glans)?
*What is spermatogenesis?
Production of mature male gametes (sperm)
*What are spermatogonia?
Primitive sex cells with 46 chromosomes located in the walls of the seminiferous tubules
*By what process do spermatogonia divide? How many daughter cells do they divide into?
Mitosis - Produce two daughter cells, each with 46 chromosomes
*What is the outcome of spermatogenesis?
Spermatids differentiate to form heads and tails and eventually transform into mature spermatozoa (sperm), each with 23 chromosomes
What is spermatozoa?
Where is the genetic material located in the spermatozoa?
The nucleus which is contained in the head
What supplies the sperm with energy?
Numerous mitochondria within the middle piece
What part of the sperm propels it forward?
How much semen is expelled between each ejaculation?
2 to 5 mL of semen continue between 40 and 100 million sperm
Why is it important for the semen to counteract the acidity of the vagina?
Because sperm become immobile in an acidic environment
What do ovaries produce?
Ova and sex hormones
What is located in each ovary?
Thousands of ovarian follicles that consist of an immature egg, or oocyte surrounded by follicular cells
*What happens during the menstrual cycle?
FSH prompts several follicles to resume meiosis. As the follicles develop, they migrate towards the surface of the ovary (usually only one follicle fully matures and reaches the surface). There it forms a fluid filled blister called a Graafian follicle. The follicle bursts and releases the egg contained inside
The fallopian tube extends from
The ovary to the uterus
What helps to propel the egg toward the uterus?
The beating movements of cilia which line inside the tube, combined with paristalsis contractions of the tube
What fans over the ovaries at the infundibulum?
What is the role of the uterus?
Houses and nurtures a growing embryo and Expelling the fetus during delivery
Where is the uterus located? Where is the fundus?
The uterus it’s between the urinary bladder and the rectum.
The fundus Is the curved upper portion of the uterus
What is the inferior end of the uterus?
What links the uterus to the vagina?
What happens to the mucus secreted in the cervical canal during ovulation?
The mucus thins to allow sperm to pass
What are the layers of the uterus?
- Outer layer: perimetrium
- Middle layer: myometrium
- Innermost layer: endometrium
What role does the myometrium play in labor?
Contains a smooth muscle that contracts during labour to expel the baby
What layer does the embryo attach to?
Inner most layer – endometrium
What happens to the upper 2/3 portion of the endometrium during menstruation?
Seconds each month in anticipation of receiving a fertilized egg. If this doesn’t occur, this layer sloughs off resulting in menstruation
What is the area inside the labia that contains the urethral and vaginal openings called?
What is the role of acini found in the lobules?
Secrete milk during lactation
What is the pigmented area of the breast called?
What is the role of the sebaceous glands found in the pigmented area?
Sebum From these glands lubricates the areola helping prevent dryness and cracking during nursing
*The ovarian cycle centre is on changes in the
*Which hormones control the ovarian cycle?
FSH and LH
*The menstrual cycle focusses on changes in the
*Which hormone’s influence the menstrual cycle?
Estrogen and progesterone
*the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle is triggered by which hormone?
Ovulation is prompted by a spike in
The luteal phase in the ovation cycle is influenced by
High levels of progesterone secreted by corpus luteum
*What hormones drive the menstrual cycle?
Estrogen and progesterone secreted by the ovaries
*How long does the menstrual phase normally last, and what is occurring during this phase?
1-5 days - Occurs as the endometrium sheds it’s functional layer (Stratum functionalis)
*What happens during the proliferative phase?
About DAY6, rising levels of estrogen stimulates the repair of the base layer and the growth of blood vessels
*What happens during the secretory phase?
After ovulation, increased progesterone from the corpus luteum causes the functional layer to thicken even more, this time as a result of secretion of fluid accumulation. During this phase, the endometrium develops into a nutritious bed about 5 to 6 mm thick, just right for a fertilized ovum
What happens in the pre-menstrual phase?
If fertilization doesn’t occur, the corpus luteum atrophies and progesterone levels plummet. Blood vessels nourishing The endometrium spasm, interacting blood flow. The endometrium becomes ischemic and necrotic, causing it to slough off the uterine wall.
**What is spermatogenesis And what does it results in?
Sperm formation - Results in 4 sperm cells
**What is a oogenesis and what does it result in?
The process through which a mature ovum is formed. Results in one egg
What are the three accessory glands for males?
Seminal vesicle, prostate gland, Bulbourethral glands
What is the function of the prostate gland?
Secretes a thin, milky, alkaline fluid into the urethra, besides adding volume to semen the fluid also enhances sperm motility
This gland secretes a clear fluid into the penile portion of the urethra during sexual arousal. serves as a lubricant for sexual intercourse and neutralizes the acidity of residual urine in the urethra