Module 6 Female Reproductive and Mammary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 6 Female Reproductive and Mammary Deck (184)
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1

Action: Milk Production
Released from: Anterior Pituitary

Prolactin

2

Action: Milk ejection
Released from: Posterior pituitary

Oxytocin

3

Primary function of the breast is to provide milk to the newborn through the process of __, which is also known as milk production, is under the hormonal influence of PROLACTIN

LACTATION

4

During pregnancy, elevated levels of prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone all contributes to the development of the breast. However, during lactation, after parturition, there will be a sudden decrease in progesterone and estrogen leading to a marked level of __ which results to lactate change in production.

prolactin

5

separates the breast

Intermammary cleft

6

- Broadest and deepest part
- Despite varying sizes and shapes of the breast, base remains roughly the same among all individuals
- Between 2nd and 6th ribs
- Edge of the sternum to midaxillary line

BASE OF THE BREAST

7

Base of the Breast is in contact with deep fascia over

1. Pectoralis major
2. Serratus anterior
3. External oblique
4. Rectus abdominis

8

Breast Quadrants: Frequency distribution of different carcinomas of the breast

1. Upper outer - 60% (where most cancer occur)
2. Upper inner – 15%
3. Lower outer – 15%
4. Lower inner – 5%

9

o Also known as Tail of Spence
o Extension into the axilla
o May be visible as definite mass

AXILLARY TAIL

10

- Loose connective tissue plane between breast and deep pectoral fascia
- Allows the breast some degree of movement
- It is a potential space that allows some degree of movement
- It is independent from the deep fascia and the underlying muscles

RETROMAMMARY SPACE

11

- Tumor invasion of retromammary space
- Tumor adherence of breast base to deep fascia
- “Fixing” of the breast to Pectoralis major

“Fixed” Breast in Breast Carcinoma

12

- Also known as mammary papilla
- Round, raised area of modified skin with slightly convoluted epidermis
- Numerous sensory nerve endings
- Increased pigmentation during pregnancy
- At the tip: 15-20 openings of the lactiferous ducts arranged in a ring

NIPPLE

13

Lining epithelium of the Nipple

Stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium

14

Lactiferous ducts/sinus

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

15

Near the tip of the nipple (Lining epithelium)

Stratified squamous

16

Opening of the lactiferous ducts

Stratified squamous keratinizing

17

- Benign; usually bilateral, mostly umbilicated
- Failure of underlying mesenchymal tissue to proliferate and project the nipple outward

Congenital Nipple Inversion

18

Nipple inversion ≠ Nipple retraction

Inversion – entire nipple is pulled in
Retraction – only a part is drawn in

19

Umbilicated vs. invaginated nipples

Umbilicated – can be pulled out
Invaginated –cannot be extracted

20

- Hyperpigmented oval area of skin surrounding the nipple
- Thin skin with sebaceous glands
- Epidermis is continuous with lactiferous sinuses lining
- Sensory never endings: areola

AREOLA

21

- Areolar glands = Montgomery’s glands
- Modified sebaceous glands (oily secretion)
- Secretion lubricates and protects the areola and nipple: changes skin’s pH and discourages microbial growth

MONTGOMERY’S TUBERCLES

22

- May be associated with underlying breast carcinoma
- Eczematous skin changes in nipple and areola: erythema, scaling, burning, pruritus (itching)  bleeding, ulceration, serosanguineous discharge
- Nipple: thickened, deformed and inverted

Paget’s Disease of the Breast

23

Blood Supply of the Breast

Branches of axillary and internal thoracic arteries

24

LYMPHATICS OF THE BREAST

- Axillary lymph nodes (75%)
- Parasternal nodes (where the medial quadrants also drain

25

- “Orange peel”
- Subcutaneous lymphatic obstruction
- Lymphatic dilatation and accumulation
- Skin edema and prominence of skin gland orifices

Peau d’orange in Breast Carcinoma

26

MAMMARY GLANDS

modified compound tubuloalveolar apocrine sweat glands

27

- each mammary gland consists 15-20 lobes
- Lobes are separated by dense CT septae
- These septae radiates from the nipple areolar complex like spoke fascia wheels

MAMMARY GLANDS

28

PARENCHYMA VS STROMA

Parenchyma – cells that serve the main function of the tissue/organ

Stroma – cells that support/provide structural scaffolding

29

- Also known as Ligament of Cooper
- Fibrous tissue septa extending from the deep fascia to the skin
- More prominent in the superior portion of the breast and they maintain the breast form and upright posture
- They are less effective when the patient lies at her back

SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS

30

- Involvement of suspensory ligaments results in skin dimpling

Skin Dimpling in Breast Carcinoma