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Flashcards in Module 4 CVS, Respi, BLS Deck (200)
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1

The Cardiovascular system consists of the following structures:

1. HEART
2. ARTERIES
3. VEINS
4. CAPILLARIES
5. The LYMPHATICS

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Cardiovascular system: Functions

1. Transport of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
2. Transport of carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste products from the tissues
3. Temperature regulation
4. Distribution of molecules (eg. Hormones and cells)

3

Functional components of the Cardiovascular System:

1. Blood vascular system
2. Lymph vascular system

4

3 Basic Components of Cardiovascular System:

1. Endothelium- lining of the inner surface of the cardiovascular system
2. Smooth Muscles- capillaries and post capillaries venules does not have.
3. Connective Tissue- made up of collagen, elastic fibers
ground substance of glycolproteins and proteoglycans.

Influenced by:
mechanical factors – BP
metabolic factors – local needs

5

3 Layers of the 4 Chambers:

1. Endocardium
2. Myocardium
3. Epicardium

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Endothelium(simple squamous) –endothelial cells
*subendocardium : thick loose c.t.
*Purkinje fibers

ENDOCARDIUM

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- modified cardiac muscle
- decrease number of myofibrils limited to the periphery
- lack transverse tubules
- larger diameter
- more sarcoplasm and glycogen(pale)
- rounded nuclei in groups of 2 or more

Purkinje fibers

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thickest and most prominent layer, with strands of connective tissue and vascular network in between cells

MYOCARDIUM

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• striated, involuntary
• cylindrical / elongated, w/ branching ends
• mono- / binucleated
*INTERCALATED DISCS —transverse lines at the ends of the branching fibers

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

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INTERCALATED DISCS

1. Fascia adherens / junctions - most prominent; anchoring sites
2. Desmosomes / Macula adherens - cardiac cells binding
3. Gap junction - ionic continuity
*Intercalated disc- found at the branches of the muscle

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- visceral layer of pericardium mesothelial cells-outer surface, secretes lubricating fluid
*fluid is used so that visceral and parietal pericardium can slide freely during contraction of the heart

EPICARDIUM

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- contain blood vessels, nerves, and fat cells
- pericardial cavity and sac

subepicardium

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Muscles of the Heart

1. Trabecula carnae- it is found arising from both ventricles.
2. Papillary muscle- extension of the ventricular myocardium, it is where the corda tendinae are attached.
3. Chorda tendinae- connect flops of AV to the wall of the
heart.

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CARDIAC SKELETON (Dense Irregular Connective Tissue)

1. Septum membranaceum - IVS; muscle attachments
2. Trigonafibrosa - between arterial foramina and AV
canals
3. Annuli fibrosi - principal attachment for the cardiac
muscles and Atrioventricular valves

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Functions of Cardiac Skeleton

1. Anchors and supports heart valves
2. Firm points of insertion for cardiac muscles
3. Acts as electrical insulation between atria and ventricles

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- is the central or main supporting structure of the heart. Though called skeleton, it is not made of bones but of dense irregular connective tissue.

Cardiac skeleton

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Impulse Conducting System

1. SA Node - pacemaker of the heart ; sulcus terminalis
area
2. AV node – below posterior leaf of aortic valve
3. Bundle of His – trigonumfibrosumdextrus
4. Right and Left branches
5. Subendocardial network of PF

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Blood vessels of the heart

coronary arteries > cardiac veins > coronary sinuses >rt atrium

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Lymphatics of the Heart:

1. Grooves of the heart
2. Epicardial connective tissue
3. Myocardium and Endocardium

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It is a serious complication of rheumatic fever. It is a bacterial infection of streptococcus, in which it affects the upper respiratory tract and extends to the heart. It targets the heart valves.

Rheumatic Heart Disease

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- narrowing of the lumen of the blood vessel, supplying the heart due to Atherosclerosis. Fat are deposited in the lumen called plaque. It decreases nutrients, oxygen until it completely obstructs causing

Coronary Heart Disease

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- cardiac myocytes shrunken, pyknotic nuclei; dense, cloudy cytoplasm.
- coagulation necrosis
*loss of nuclei
*absence of striations
*fibrous scar

Myocardial Infarct

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- tubular structures that convey blood away and towards the heart

BLOOD VESSELS

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BLOOD VESSELS

Arteries : toward organ and tissue

Capillaries : anastomosing channels of small caliber vessels providing interchange of substances.

Veins : return blood to the heart

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COMMON BASIC STRUCTURE

Tunica intima - innermost part, analogue in heart is
endocardium

Tunica media - middle part, analogue in heart is
myocardium

Tunica adventitia - outermost part, analogue in heart is
epicardium

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Endothelium = layer of endothelial cells
Subendothelium = Loose Connective Tissue with smoothmuscle cells
*Internal elastic lamina/membrane or fenestrated membrane of Henle
* scalloped appearance

Tunica intima

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- Circumferentially arranged smooth muscles, with elastic, collagen fibers III, glycoproteins and proteoglycans
*External elastic lamina/membrane

Tunica media

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separates the Tunica media from Tunica adventitia in arteries

External elastic lamina/membrane

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- Loose Connective Tissue
- Type I collagen and elastic fibers Vasa vasorum,
nervi vasorum
- Vasa vasorum: blood supply of blood vessel (vessel of
the vessel)
- Nervi vasorum: nerve supply of blood vessel
(VASOMOTOR – noerepinephrine)
- Subendothelium: With fibroblasts and Myointimal cells
- Early changes of atherosclerosis

Tunica adventitia

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Endothelial cells 1

1. Acts as permeability barrier

2. Basement membrane maintenance – synthesize collagens and proteoglycans

3. Fc VIII (Von Willebrand) secretion – protective thrombus formation

4. Minimize pathological thrombus – synthesize and secrete prostacyclin, thrombomodulin, NO2 (inhibits platelet adhesion )