Module 6.2 Male Reproductive System and Special Sense Flashcards Preview

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Consists of:
- Two gonads, the testes, which produce male germ cells and male sex hormones
- A copulatory organ, the penis
- A set of tubes and tubules which transmit the male germ cells from the testes to the penis
- Accessory glands – seminal vesicle, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands, which provide a fluid medium for carrying the male germ cells

Male Reproductive System


Gonads – primary sex organs

Testes in males
Ovaries in females


Gonads produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete hormones

Sperm – male gametes
Ova (eggs) – female gametes


(Development of the Gonads)

These appear as a pair of longitudinal ridges which are formed by proliferation of the coelomic epithelium and condensation of the underlying mesenchyme called the __ during the 5th week of development.

genital ridge or gonadal ridge


(Development of the Gonads)

In the 6th week of development, the primordial germ cells derived from the yolk sac __, invade the genital ridge.



(Development of the Gonads)

During the arrival of the primordial germ cells, the coelomic epithelium of the genital ridge proliferates and epithelial cells penetrate the underlying mesenchyme forming irregularly shaped cords, the __.

primitive sex cords


(Development of the Gonads)

Before the 7th week of development, the gonads of the two sexes are identical in appearance and are called __.

indifferent gonads


(Sex Determination)

__ is determined by the testis determining factor / TDF on the Y chromosome.

Gonadal sex


(Development of the Testis)

If the embryo is genetically male, the primitive sex cords continue to proliferate to form the testes or medullary cords. Later, this gives rise to the __.

seminiferous tubules and the rete testis


(Development of the Testis)

Then the testis cords will lose its contact with surface epithelium and will be covered with a dense layer of connective tissue, the __.

tunica albuginea


(Development of the Testis)

The testis cords are composed of __

primitive germ cells and Sertoli cells


(Development of the Testis)

The __ are derived from the mesenchyme of the gonadal ridge located between the testis cords.

Leydig cell


(Development of the Testis)

From the 8th weeks of development, the Leydig cells secrete testosterone, which induces masculine differentiation of the mesonephric ducts and external genitalia. While the Sertoli cells secrete __ which inhibits development of the paramesonephric ducts.

Mullerian inhibiting substance


(Development of the Testis)

Due to the rapid growth of the dorsal wall of the embryo, the testes gradually descend behind the abdominal position until the __.

7th month


(Development of the Testis)

From the 7th month until birth, there is progressive shortening of gubarnaculum testis. At birth, the testis is inside the __.

scrotal sac


Coverings of the testes

Tunica albuginea – capsule that surrounds each testis
Septa – extensions of the capsule that extend into the testis and divide it into lobules


- Tightly coiled structures
- Function as sperm-forming factories
- Empty sperm into the rete testis

seminiferous tubules


- Each lobule contains one to four seminiferous tubules
- Sperm travels through the rete testis to the epididymis
- Interstitial cells produce androgens such as testosterone
- are compound tubular glands lodged in the scrotum.



The __ is a pendulous bag of skin with a thin wall, an incomplete layer of smooth muscle (Dartos muscle) and some subcutaneous tissue. It has a considerable surface area and it is believed that this permits its contents to be maintained at a temperature slightly below that of the body. This lower temperature is important for spermatogenesis or the production of sperm cells.



- develop retroperitoneally within the abdominal cavity.
- They descend into the scrotum, where the cooler temperature are more hospitable for spermatogenesis




- During the descent of the testis, it carries an evagination of the peritoneal cavity into the scrotum.
- Usually, the connection between this processus vaginalis and the peritoneal cavity proper in obliterated later in life, leaving a tunica vaginalis.
- The anterior and lateral aspects of the testes are coated with a mesothelium that once was continuous with the mesothelium lining the peritoneal cavity.


The testes is surrounded by three layers of testicular capsule:

- an outer tunica vaginalis
- middle tunica albuginea
- inner tunica vasculosa.


The __ contains a network of blood vessels.

tunica vasculosa


- is a thick, fibrous connective tissue capsule that lies beneath the mesothelium.
- It penetrates deeply into the posterior aspect of the testes, forming the mediastinum testis

tunica albuginea


- is located in the mediastinum testis.
- It is through here that ducts, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels enter and leave.

hilus of the testis


Along the posterior border of each testis, the capsule becomes greatly thickened and is known as the __.

mediastinum testis


The __ divide the testis into numerous pyramidal compartments called testicular lobules.

fibrous partitions (septuli testis)


Each lobule contains one to four highly convoluted seminiferous tubules supported by fibrous connective tissue containing the __, which are large cells with an endocrine function

interstitial cells of Leydig


At the apex of the lobule, each lobule becomes a straight lobule called the __.

tubuli recti



The tubuli recti in turn anastomose and form a network of tubules called the __ which is found in the mediastinum testis.

rete testis