Module 2: Epithelial, Connective, Bone and Cartilage Flashcards Preview

Histology > Module 2: Epithelial, Connective, Bone and Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 2: Epithelial, Connective, Bone and Cartilage Deck (196)
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1

Characteristics / Properties of Epithelial Cells

> Formed by epithelial cells
> Extremely cohesive
> Avascular
>Provided with basement membrane

2

Three germ layers of Epithelial Cells

1. Ectoderm
2. Endoderm
3. Mesoderm

3

Surface covering and lines cavities

Epithelial Tissue

4

Functions of Epithelial Tissue

1. Protection
2. Secretion
3. Absorption
4. Excretion
5. Sensory receptors
6. Filtration
7. Lubrication

5

- sheet-like arrangements of extra-cellular matrix proteins
- Interface between support tissues and parenchyma
- structural support

Basement membrane

6

- attachment of epithelial tissues
- control of epithelial growth and differentiation*
- permeable barrier
- Type IV collagen
- proteins: heparan SO4

Basement membrane

7

Layers of Basal Lamina

1. Lamina lucida
2. Lamina densa
3. Lamina fibro-reticularis

8

Components of Basal Lamina

1. Type IV ccollagen
2. Heparan SO4
3. Structural glycoprotein

9

Structural glycoprotein

- fibronectin
- laminin
- entactin

10

Membrane Specializations:

1. Intercellular
2. Lumina
3. Basal

11

Epithelial Tissue Membrane Specializations: Intercellular

1. Occluding junctions - tight, zonula occludens*
2. Adhering junctions* - zonula adherens, macula adherens
(desmosomes)
** junctional complex
3. Gap junctions / nexus

12

Epithelial Tissue Membrane Specializations: Luminal

1. cilia – axoneme (microtubules)* , basal body
* doublets (complete (dynein), incomplete
2. microvilli - microfilaments (ZA), intermediate filaments(MA)
*striated / brush borders
3. stereocilia

13

Epithelial Tissue Membrane Specializations: Basal

basement membrane - hemidesmosomes

14

- selective diffusion, absorption, secretion
- surface specializations (microvilli, cilia)

Simple Epithelium

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- Simple epithelium
- Layering of nuclei
- Resting on basement membrane
- In respiratory passages, male uro-genital tracts, female excretory ducts
- Membrane specializations

Pseudostratified epithelium

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- loose collagenous
- fibroblast , mast cells , macrophages

Papillary layer

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- dense irregular c.t.
- blood and lymph vessels
- skin appendages

Reticular layer

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Basal - cuboidal
Intermediate - polygonal
Surface – rounded / flat
1. large, pale, scalloped
2 . thickened
3. ½ nuclei, large, round, prominent nucleoli

Transitional Epithelium

19

Specialized to synthesize and secrete a specific product (Proteins, Lipids, CHO+CHON)

Glandular Epithelium

20

Glandular Epithelium: Number of cells

1. Unicellular gland - Goblet cells- mucigen
2. Multicellular gland

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Glandular Epithelium: Manner of secretion

1. Endocrine – without ducts into blood / lymph
2. Exocrine – with ducts
3. Paracrine – paraneurons , into the ECS

22

Glandular Epithelium: Mechanism for release or fate of cell after secretion

1. Merocrine – intact cell (Eccrine gland)
2. Apocrine – loss of part of the cell
3. Holocrine – total loss of the cell

23

Glandular Epithelium: Nature or Characteristic or Type of secretion

1. Serous gland
2. Mucous gland
3. Mixed gland
4. Cytogenic gland

24

Glandular Epithelium: Morphology or Structure:

1. Simple
a. simple tubular
b. simple coiled tubular
c. simple branched tubular
d. simple acinar ( alveolar )
e. simple branched alveolar

2. Compound
a. compound tubular
b. compound tubulo-alveolar
c. compound alveolar

25

4 Fundamental Tissues

1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscular
4. Nervous

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Functions of Connective Tissues

- Bind together, Support & Strengthen organs and soft tissues of the body
- Protect and insulate internal organs
- Repair of the body
- Transport system, Hematopoiesis (blood)
- Fat storage (adipose)
- Immune response (white blood cells)
- Protection against bacterial infection

27

Two Main Components of Connective Tissue

1. Extra cellular matrix - Consist of protein fiber and ground substance
2. Resident Cells -Fibroblast, Mesenchymal cells, Macrophage, Fat cells
- Cells not usually touching each other
- Lots of extracellular matrix
- Well vascularized

28

are relatively few and widely separated.
The intercellular substance is abundant, containing
- a portion of tissue fluids
- extracellular matrix ( protein fibers and ground substance)

Connective Tissue

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Immature cells called

“-blasts”

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Mature cells called

“-cytes”