Flashcards in Money/graphs talk phrases Deck (30):
The global economic financial crisis has reignited public interest in...
Why is it that countries with seemingly similar economies and institutions can display radically different savings behavior?
They have spent their entire lives working on this question, and have made a tremendous amount of headway
We understand a lot about this.
What I'm here to talk with you about today is an intriguing new hypothesis
and some surprisingly powerful new findings that I've been working on about the link between the structure of the language you speak and how you find yourself with the propensity to save
我研究了人们说的语言的（语法）结构 和他们的存钱习惯之间的关系， 并得到了一些意外的新发现。
surprisingly powerful new findings
I will first introduce savings rates, then tell you little bit about language, and then I'll draw that connection.
[focus on the sequential grammar]
我们 先 介绍国民储蓄比率， 再 介绍语言差别， 然后 我们把这两者联系起来。
Let's start by thinking about the member countries of the OECD, or the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development.
She is determined to devote her life to sicence.
tā juéxīn bă bìshēngjīnglì gòngxiàn gĕi kēxuéshìyè
OECD countries, by and large, you should think about these as the richest, most industrialized countries in the world.
[remember it‘s plural]
And by joining the OECD, they were affirming a common commitment to democracy, open markets and free trade.
[remember it‘s plural]
加入OECD组织的国家 都需要符合 民主政府、开放市场和自由贸易要求。
Despite all of these similarities, we see huge differences in savings behavior.
[focus on grammar of 'despite..and yet']
So on the left of this graph, what you see is many OECD countries save over 1/4 of their GDP every year, and some OECD countries saving over 1/3 of their GDP per year.
看这张图的左边， 你会看到多数OECD成员国【年储蓄率】超过GDP的1/4， 而部分成员国的【年储蓄率】达到了GDP的1/3。
Holding down the right flank of the OECD, all the way on the other side, is Greece.
Over the last 25 years, Greece has barely managed to save more than 10% of their GDP.
[focus on grammar of ‘barely']
It should be noted, of course, that the United States and the U.K. are the next in line
[chengyu of 'are next in line'
Now that we see these huge differences in savings rates, how is it possible that language might have something to do with these differences?
[remember the grammar of the implicit 'but']
Let me tell you a little bit about how languages fundamentally differ
[remember you can change stuff around: 'where the fundamental difference is']
让我告诉你 语言之间 的 本质差异所在。
Linguists and cognitive scientists have been exploring this question for many years now; now I'll draw the connection between these two behaviours.
[remember the ; is a connective like 'and']
语言学家 和 认知科学家 已经研究这个问题很多年了，
Many of you have probably already noticed that I'm Chinese. I grew up in the Midwest of the United States.
Something I realized quite early on was that the Chinese language forced me to speak about and -- in fact, more fundamentally than that -- ever so slightly forced me to think about family in very different ways.
[grammar to indicate earliness]
[change the structure completely]
我很小的时候 就 意识到了，
Suppose I were talking with you and I was introducing you to my uncle.
You understood exactly what I just said in English.
If we were speaking Mandarin Chinese with each other, though, I wouldn't have that luxury.
["wouldn't have that luxury" - Chinese-ify it]
What my language would have forced me to do, instead of just telling you, "This is my uncle," is to tell you a tremendous amount of additional information.
[RC of the verb 'add']
我无法用中文告诉你 这是我的“叔叔”， 而是会附加上更多的（家庭关系）信息。
My language would force me to tell youwhether or not this was an uncle on my mother's side or my father's side, whether this was an uncle by marriage or by birth, and if this man was my father's brother, whether he was older than or younger than my father.
All of this information is obligatory. Chinese doesn't let me ignore it.
And in fact, if I want to speak correctly, Chinese forces me to constantly think about it.
[grammar of 'if'....'then'....]
事实上，如果 【要我】 不弄错的话 我【就】要不断的去想这之间的关系。