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Flashcards in Money/graphs talk phrases Deck (30):
1

The global economic financial crisis has reignited public interest in...

全球金融危机 让人们对于。。。重新产生了兴趣

2

Why is it that countries with seemingly similar economies and institutions can display radically different savings behavior?

为什么【经济规模】和【政治体制】看起来相似的国家之间, 国民的储蓄习惯差别如此之大?

3

They have spent their entire lives working on this question, and have made a tremendous amount of headway

它们花毕生精力研究了这个问题,取得了很大的进展,

4

brilliant economists

经济学家大师

5

We understand a lot about this.

我们对这个问题 也有了很深的认识

6

What I'm here to talk with you about today is an intriguing new hypothesis


and some surprisingly powerful new findings that I've been working on about the link between the structure of the language you speak and how you find yourself with the propensity to save

我今天要跟大家分享的是一个很有意思的假说,


我研究了人们说的语言的(语法)结构 和他们的存钱习惯之间的关系, 并得到了一些意外的新发现。

7

surprisingly powerful new findings

意外的新发现

8

I will first introduce savings rates, then tell you little bit about language, and then I'll draw that connection.

[focus on the sequential grammar]

我们 先 介绍国民储蓄比率, 再 介绍语言差别, 然后 我们把这两者联系起来。

9

Let's start by thinking about the member countries of the OECD, or the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development.

我们从OECD国家开始考虑, OECD即“经济合作与发展组织”。

10

She is determined to devote her life to sicence.

她决心把毕生精力贡献给科学事业。
tā juéxīn bă bìshēngjīnglì gòngxiàn gĕi kēxuéshìyè

11

OECD countries, by and large, you should think about these as the richest, most industrialized countries in the world.

[remember it‘s plural]

基本上OECD包含的都是 世界上最富有的工业化国家。

or

OECD成员国家都是...

12

And by joining the OECD, they were affirming a common commitment to democracy, open markets and free trade.

[remember it‘s plural]

加入OECD组织的国家 都需要符合 民主政府、开放市场和自由贸易要求。

13

Despite all of these similarities, we see huge differences in savings behavior.

[focus on grammar of 'despite..and yet']

虽然这些国家都是很相似的,但是他们的存储行为差别很大。

14

So on the left of this graph, what you see is many OECD countries save over 1/4 of their GDP every year, and some OECD countries saving over 1/3 of their GDP per year.

看这张图的左边, 你会看到多数OECD成员国【年储蓄率】超过GDP的1/4, 而部分成员国的【年储蓄率】达到了GDP的1/3。

15

Holding down the right flank of the OECD, all the way on the other side, is Greece.

在图右侧的这些国家,最右边的是希腊,

16

Over the last 25 years, Greece has barely managed to save more than 10% of their GDP.

[focus on grammar of ‘barely']

在过去25年, 希腊的国民储蓄率刚超过10%。

17

It should be noted, of course, that the United States and the U.K. are the next in line

[chengyu of 'are next in line'

需要注意美国和英国紧随其后。

18

Now that we see these huge differences in savings rates, how is it possible that language might have something to do with these differences?

[remember the grammar of the implicit 'but']

现在我们看到 储蓄率的巨大差别,但是语言跟这种差异有什么关系呢?

19

Let me tell you a little bit about how languages fundamentally differ

[remember you can change stuff around: 'where the fundamental difference is']

让我告诉你 语言之间 的 本质差异所在。

20

Linguists and cognitive scientists have been exploring this question for many years now; now I'll draw the connection between these two behaviours.

[remember the ; is a connective like 'and']

语言学家 和 认知科学家 已经研究这个问题很多年了,


而我今天将会将这两种行为联系起来。

21

Many of you have probably already noticed that I'm Chinese. I grew up in the Midwest of the United States.

你们许多人可能已经意识到了我是华裔,我在美国中西部长大。

22

Something I realized quite early on was that the Chinese language forced me to speak about and -- in fact, more fundamentally than that -- ever so slightly forced me to think about family in very different ways.

[grammar to indicate earliness]
[change the structure completely]
[plural]

我很小的时候 就 意识到了,
中文
在家庭关系的叫法
(实际上更本质的,甚至在思维方式上)
都跟英文有很大的不同。

23

Suppose I were talking with you and I was introducing you to my uncle. 

假设你我在聊天儿,提到了我的叔叔(uncle)。

24

You understood exactly what I just said in English.

你完全理解这个英文的意思。

25

If we were speaking Mandarin Chinese with each other, though, I wouldn't have that luxury. 

["wouldn't have that luxury" - Chinese-ify it]

但是如果我们用普通话聊天, 我就头疼了

26

What my language would have forced me to do, instead of just telling you, "This is my uncle," is to tell you a tremendous amount of additional information. 

[conjunction]
[RC of the verb 'add']

我无法用中文告诉你 这是我的“叔叔”, 而是会附加上更多的(家庭关系)信息。

27

My language would force me to tell youwhether or not this was an uncle on my mother's side or my father's side, whether this was an uncle by marriage or by birth, and if this man was my father's brother, whether he was older than or younger than my father. 

如果用中文,我就要一并告诉你...
这个人
是我爸爸这边的还是妈妈这边的,
是婚姻关系还是血缘关系;
如果是我爸爸的兄弟, 年纪比我爸爸大还是比我爸爸小。

28

All of this information is obligatory. Chinese doesn't let me ignore it. 

这些都是必须的,中文无法省略这些信息。

29

And in fact, if I want to speak correctly, Chinese forces me to constantly think about it.

[grammar of 'if'....'then'....]

事实上,如果 【要我】 不弄错的话 我【就】要不断的去想这之间的关系。

30

This fascinated me endlessly as a child, but what fascinates me even more today as an economist is that some of these same differences carry through to how languages speak about time.

[connection 'but']

这是 小时候 让我很好奇的事情,

而现在我作为一个经济学家更加好奇的是

不同的语言在如何表示时间上的差异。