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PBR Fast Review by Cliff > Most Commons > Flashcards

Flashcards in Most Commons Deck (202):
1

Abused opioid by medical professionals?

Meperidine and fentanyl

2

Accidental suffocation

Overlying

3

Adolescent hip disorder

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

4

Adrenal tumor in adults

Pheochromocytoma

5

Adrenal tumor in children

Neuroblastoma

6

Adverse effect of ASA

Gastric upset

7

Adverse effect of diuretics

Hypokalemia (except K-sparing diuretics)

8

Affected segment in radiation enteritis

Terminal ileum

9

Affected type of collagen in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

Type III

10

Age group with endometriosis

3rd and 4th decade

11

Aneurysm site, cerebral

Anterior communicating artery (PComm is 2nd)

12

Ankle injury

Inversion

13

Anomaly of splenic embryology

Accessory spleen

14

Ascending aorta aneurysm complication

Aortic insufficiency

15

ASD

Ostium secundum (80%)

16

Benign tumor of the lung

Hamartoma

17

Benign tumor of the rib

Osteochondroma

18

Biliary-enteric fistula

Gallbladder-duodenum

19

Bone tumor of the hand

Endochondroma

20

Carcinoid tumor (GI)

Appendix (2nd: Ileum)

21

Cardiac tumor

Metastasis

22

Cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (systolic dysfunction)

23

Cause of acute cholecystitis

Cystic duct obstruction

24

Cause of acute mastitis

Staph aureus

25

Cause of ARF

ATN (death most common in initial oliguric phase)

26

Cause of ARF in children

HUS

27

Cause of ARF in surgical patients

Hypovolemia

28

Cause of aneuploidy

Meiotic nondisjunction

29

Cause of anuria on 1st day of life [male]

Posterior urethral valves

30

Cause of athlete��_s foot

Trichophyton (Tinea pedis)

31

Cause of bloody nipple discharge

Intraductal papilloma

32

Cause of bowel incarceration

Femoral hernia

33

Cause of bowel obstruction in neonates

Hirschsprung disease

34

Cause of burns in civilian setting

Scalds

35

Cause of CAH

21-hydroxylase deficiency (90%)

36

Cause of chronic constrictive pericarditis

Viral infection

37

Cause of congenital chronic hemolytic anemia

Pyruvate kinase deficiency

38

Cause of CPC of the liver

R-sided heart failure

39

Cause of CPC of the lung

L-sided heart failure / Mitral stenosis

40

Cause of Cushing��_s syndrome

Iatrogenic (steroid treatments)

41

Cause of epistaxis

Nosepicking

42

Cause of erythema multiforme

Infectious (HSV, then Mycoplasma pneumoniae)

43

Cause of esophageal rupture

Iatrogenic (post-endoscopy)

44

Cause of [hereditary] mental retardation

Down syndrome

45

Cause of hereditary thrombophilia

Factor V Leiden (resistant to activated protein C); second most common is Prothrombin 20210A tranistion

46

Cause of hyperprolactinemia

Prolactinoma

47

Cause of hypertension in young men

Excessive ethanol

48

Cause of hypertension in young women

OCP use

49

Cause of hypoparathyroidism

Surgical

50

Cause of infectious mastitis

Staph aureus

51

Cause of infertility, female

Endometriosis

52

Cause of lower GI bleed in pts >40

Diverticulosis

53

Cause of mycotic aneurysm

Treponema pallidum

54

Cause of non-gonococcal urethritis

Chlamydia trachomatis

55

Cause of osteomyelitis

Staphylococcus (in HbS patients, Salmonella, in IV drug users, Pseudomonas)

56

Cause of otitis externa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

57

Cause of otitis media

Strep pneumo, then H. influenzae, Moraxella sp.

58

Cause of nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Membranous GN

59

Cause of nephrotic syndrome (children)

Minimal change disease

60

Cause of preventable blindness worldwide

Chlamydia trachomatis (trachoma)

61

Cause of persistent jaundice in infancy

Biliary atresia

62

Cause of poor wound healing

Tissue hypoxia

63

Cause of primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome

64

Cause of prostatitis in young adult males

Chlamydia trachomatis

65

Cause of pneumaturia

Bladder-GI fistula; usually in diverticulitis

66

Cause of postpartum hemorrhage

Uterine atony

67

Cause of pulmonary hypoplasia

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (more commonly L)

68

Cause of pyogenic osteomyelitis in sickle cell patients

Salmonella

69

Cause of retrograde menstruation (anomaly)

Imperforate hymen

70

Cause of SAH

Trauma (1st Aid CK) / Berry aneurysm

71

Cause of secondary amenorrhea

Pregnancy

72

Cause of septic arthritis in children <2 yrs

H. influenza

73

Cause of skin graft loss

Hematoma/seroma formation

74

Cause of testicular pain over 12 years old

Testicular torsion

75

Cause of testicular pain 2-11 yrs

Torsion of appendix testes

76

Cause of vulvar pruritus

Candidal vulvovaginitis

77

Cerebral hemorrhage [syndrome]

Putaminal hemorrhage

78

Cervical disc herniation level

C6-C7 (wrist drop)

79

Childhood supratentorial tumor

Craniopharyngioma

80

Chromosomal disorder

Down syndrome

81

Clonality marker

HUMARA

82

Colon CA

AdenoCA

83

Colon polyp

Benign hyperplastic hamartoma (90%)

84

Compound fracture site

Tibia (middle-lower junction)

85

Congenital GI tract anomaly

Meckel��_s diverticulum

86

Congenital pancytopenia

Fanconi anemia

87

Cystic lesion of mediastinum

Bronchogenic cyst

88

Diaphragmatic hernia

Sliding hiatal hernia

89

Direction of nucleus pulposus herniation

Posterolateral

90

Direction of testicular torsion

Medial

91

Dislocated wrist bone

Lunate

92

Disorder of sexual differentiation in boys

Undescended testes

93

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Type IV

94

Endometrial CA

Pure endometrial CA

95

Esophageal atresia (type)

Type C (EA with distal TEF), then A, then E

96

Fractured wrist bone

Scaphoid

97

Gallbladder anomaly

Folded fundus

98

Gallstone

Pigment (worldwide)

99

Glucocorticoid in cancer therapy

Prednisone

100

Glycosaminoglycan in vitreous

Hyaluronic acid

101

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial CA

102

Hemolytic transfusion reaction sign

Oliguria and hemoglobinuria

103

Hereditary bleeding disorder

Von Willebrand disease

104

Hodgkin��_s lymphoma

Nodular sclerosing

105

Iatrogenically injured nerve

Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)

106

ICA nonatherosclerotic disease

Fibromuscular dysplasia

107

Infection following renal transplant

CMV (viral infection)

108

Inguinal hernia

Indirect (2:1)

109

Inherited B-cell defect

Isolated IgA deficiency

110

Inherited hemolytic anemia

Hereditary spherocytosis (1st Aid CK)

111

Inherited risk factor for peripheral vasc disease

Elevated lipoprotein A

112

Injured major joint in the body

Ankle

113

Injured nerve in lower limb

Common fibular (foot-drop)

114

Intrinsic platelet defect

Storage pool disease

115

Involved lobe in amebic liver abscess

R lobe

116

Liver pathogens

E. coli, Klebsiella, and Proteus

117

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher��_s disease

118

Malignancy associated with erythroderma

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

119

Malignancy associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus

Non-Hodgkin��_s lymphoma

120

Malignancy in atomic blast survivors

AML and CML

121

Malignancy in children

ALL

122

Malignancy in chronic immunosuppression

Squamous cell CA (then PTLD)

123

Malignancy in radiologists

AML and skin CA

124

Malignancy of the palate

SCCA and minor salivary gland tumors

125

Malignant melanoma

Superfical spreading melanoma

126

Metastasis of Lung CA

Adrenals

127

Mineral deficiency in TPN

Zinc

128

Neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum in adults

Thymoma

129

Non-Hodgkin��_s Lymphoma

Follicular (small cleaved cell); t (14;18; bcl-2)

130

Omental tumor

Metastatic CA

131

Ovarian CA

Germinal epithelium

132

Ovarian malignancy dx during pregnancy

Dysgerminoma (analogous to seminoma)

133

Pancreatic endocrine neoplasm

Insulinoma

134

PAOD etiology

Atherosclerosis (at femoral a. near adductor hiatus)

135

Pathologic parasitic infection in humans

Giardiasis

136

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma

137

Post-splenectomy sepsis organisms

S. pneumo, H. influenza, N. meningitides

138

Precursor of choriocarcinoma

Hydatidiform ole

139

Presenting symptom of KUB cancers

Hematuria

140

Primary bone malignancy

Multiple myeloma (1st Aid); 2nd: osteosarcoma

141

Primary bone tumor in the elderly

Multiple myeloma

142

Primary cardiac neoplasm

Myxoma

143

Primary esophageal motility disorder

Nutcracker esophagus

144

Primary lymphedema

Lymphedema praecox

145

Pulmonary embolus origin

Above the knee (80%)

146

Renal Cell CA

Clear Cell

147

Renal malignancy of childhood

Wilms tumor

148

Renal stone

Calcium

149

Renal transplant complication [donors]

Wound finection

150

Route of metastasis, papillary thyroid CA

Lymphatic

151

Route of metastasis, soft tissue sarcoma

Hematogenous

152

Sarcoma of small intestine in adults

Leiomyosarcoma

153

Shoulder dislocation

Anterior

154

Side of groin hernia

Right

155

Side of varicocoele

Left (due to compression from sigmoid)

156

Site of cervical CA

Transformation zone (spreads to obturator nodes)

157

Site of colon CA

Rectosigmoid junction (2nd: cecum)

158

Sites of copper deposition in Wilson��_s Disease

Descemet��_s membrane, Basal ganglia (esp. putamen)

159

Site of diverticulosis

Sigmoid colon

160

Site of ectopic pregnancy

Ampulla

161

Site of endometriosis

Ovary (80%)

162

Site of Familial adenomatous polyposis

Rectosigmoid colon

163

Site of foreign body aspiration

Right main bronchus (except when lying on the L)

164

Site of esophageal malignancy

Lower 3rd (mets to celiac nodes)

165

Site of gastric ulcers

Lesser curvature, body, above incisura angularis, where parietal cells �_� G cells

166

Site of duodenal ulcers

Anterior wall of duodenal cap (Posterior, according to Moore��_argh!)

167

Site of duodenal ulcer perforation

Anterior wall

168

Site of gastrinoma

Passaro��_s triangle

169

Site of ischemic colitis

Left colon (esp. splenic flexure)

170

Site of Kaposi��_s sarcoma in head and neck

Palate

171

Site of lower limb vascular occlusion

Femoral artery at level of profunda femoris

172

Site of multiple myeloma lesion

Vertebrae

173

Site of nosebleed

Kiesselbach plexus

174

Site of soft tissue sarcoma

Extremities

175

Site of volvulus

Sigmoid colon

176

Site of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Pancreas

177

Small intestine malignancy

Adenocarcinoma

178

Small intestine malignancy in children

Lymphoma

179

Small intestine tumor

Adenoma

180

Soft tissue sarcoma of childhood

Rhabdomyosarcoma

181

Soft tissue sarcoma of adults (excluding Kaposi)

Malignant fibrous (2nd: liposarcoma)

182

Solid tumor in children

Neuroblastoma

183

Source of brain metastasis

Lung, breast, melanoma, kidney, GI

184

Spinal muscle atrophy

Werdnig-Hoffman disease (Infantile motor neuron disease)

185

Splenectomy complication

Atelectasis of L lower lung

186

Surgery for sleep apnea

Uvulopalatoplasty (repair of soft palate collapse)

187

Testicular CA in >60 years?

Lymphoma

188

Testicular germ cell neoplasm

Seminoma (commonly on the R)

189

Testicular CA in infants and children <3

Yolk sac CA

190

Tibial fracture site

Junction of middle and lower segment

191

Tumor in females

Leiomyoma

192

Tumor in infants

Hemangioma

193

Tumor of urinary collecting system

Transitional cell CA (associated with phenacetin abuse)

194

Urinary diversion post-cystectomy

Ileal conduit (incontinent)

195

Urine leakage injury

Type III (from straddle injury)

196

Valvular lesion

MVP

197

Valvular lesion in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Aortic insufficiency

198

Vasculitis (children)

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

199

Vasculitis (general)

Temporal (giant cell) arteritis

200

Viral cause of mental retardation

CMV

201

Visceral artery aneurysm

Splenic artery aneurysm

202

VSD

Membranous (Kaplan-Pedia; Robbins)