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Flashcards in Proper Nouns and Latin Names Deck (412):
1

Dysfunctional Auerbach��_s plexus, ��_bird beak,��_ may be assoc. with Chagas disease (T. cruzi infection)

Achalasia

2

Great anterior segmental medullary artery; L-sided in 65% of people; reinforces blood flow to 2/3 of anterior spinal cord

Artery of Adamkiewicz

3

Primary adrenal insufficiency

Addison disease

4

Arteriohepatic dysplasia; PS, butterfly vertebrae, long nose, 20p12-

Alagille syndrome

5

Osteopetrosis

Albers-Schonberg disease

6

Transmits pudendal nerve and internal pudendal a.

Alcock��_s canal

7

Childhood leukodystrophy; macrocephaly, seizures, spasticity; GFAP mutation

Alexander disease

8

Amniotic rupture with secondary entanglement and tearing/amputation of developed parts (usually digits)

Amniotic band disruption sequence

9

Collagen IV mutation; Basement membrane splitting; nephritic syndrome; lens defects, deafness

Alport syndrome

10

��_Happy puppet��_ inappropriate laughter; mental retardation, seizures, ataxia, 15q11-13 (maternal)

Angelman��_s syndrome

11

Activated histiocytes; pathognomonic of RHD

Anitschkow��_s cells

12

Restless legs syndrome

Anxietas tibiarum

13

Turribrachycephaly, syndactyly, ankyloses, progressive synostoses, mental retardation; FGFR-2 gene; paternal

Apert syndrome

14

��_Prostitute��_s pupil��_, accommodates but does not react; seen in neurosyphilis

Argyll-Robertson Pupil

15

Tubular deposition of glycogen, seen in DM

Armanni-Ebstein lesion

16

Small posterior fossa; downward displacement of cerebellum

Arnold-Chiari Malformation

17

Chiari I: low-lying cerebellum; tonsils descend through foramen magnum; medullary compression, asymptomatic

Chiari I

18

Chiari II: vermis and medulla descend through foramen; fatal

Chiari II

19

Granuloma with giant cells; classic finding in RHD

Aschoff bodies

20

Intrauterine adhesions, assoc with D and C; amenorrhea

Asherman��_s syndrome

21

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor, related to Ewing��_s, small cell thoracopulmonary tumor

Askin��_s tumor

22

Peroxidase (+) granulocyte/myeloblast inclusions; M3 leukemia; may cause DIC

Auer rods

23

Projection of SA node to L atrium

Bachmann Bundle

24

Atrial stretch ユ__ increased heart rate

Bainbridge Reflex

25

Infantile scurvy

Barlow��_s disease

26

Mitral valve prolapse

Barlow��_s syndrome

27

Squamous metaplasia at least 3cm into esophagus; assoc with adenoCA

Barrett��_s Esophagus

28

Greater vestibular glands, homologous to Cowper��_s

Bartholin��_s glands

29

TAL ion transporter mutation; mimics loop diuretics, Salt wasting, hypercalciuria, hypoMg, hyperrenninemia, ��_PGE2

Bartter��_s syndrome

30

Abetalipoproteinemia

Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome

31

aka Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; childhood neurodegenerative disorder

Batten disease

32

Less severe muscular dystrophy than Duchenne��_s

Becker��_s muscular dystrophy

33

Hemihypertrophy, macroglossia, organomegaly, neonatal hypoglycemia, embryonal tumors, Wilms tumor, omphalocoele

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

34

First strained food given to infant

Beikost

35

Openings of pyramids to minor calyces (through area cribosa)

Papillary ducts of Bellini

36

Fat embolization; neurodysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, petechiae

Bergman��_s triad

37

Defect of platelet adhesion (ユ__ GP Ib)

Bernard-Soulier disease

38

Superior suspensory ligament of thyroid

Ligament of Berry

39

Projections of renal cortex between medullary pyramids

Columns of Bertin

40

IV local anesthetic for upper/lower ex anesthesia

Bier block

41

Irregularly irregular breathing with abrupt starts/stops, in dorsomedial medullary lesions

Biot��_s breathing

42

Pearly, triangular, conjunctival spots; in Vitamin A deficiency

Bitot spots

43

Full-thickness esophageal tears

Boerhaave syndrome

44

Benign ovarian tumor; resembles bladder tissue

Brenner tumor

45

Allergy to A. fumigatus

Brewer��_s lung

46

Avascular segment between anterior and posterior kidney; used for longitudinal sections when removing staghorn calculi

Brodel��_s white line

47

Diminished INa current in RV epicardium; ST elevation V1-V3, ventricular arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death in young asian males

Brugada Syndrome

48

Submucosal duodenal glands

Brunner��_s glands

49

White spots on periphery of iris; seen in Down syndrome

Brushfield spots

50

X-linked agammaglobulinemia; reduced all five Igs; recurrent infections after 6 mos of life

Bruton��_s disease

51

Portal hypertension 2��_ to hepatic vein occlusion

Budd-Chiari disease

52

EBV; ��_Starry-sky��_ appearance

Burkitt��_s lymphoma

53

Diver��_s disease; Nitrogen embolism

Caisson��_s disease

54

Granulosa Cell Tumor

Call-Exner bodies

55

Demyelinating disease of infancy; metachromatic leukodystrophy, arylsulfatase A deficiency, AR

Canavan disease

56

Divides liver into R and L lobes (drawn between gallbladder, just left of IVC)

Cantle��_s line

57

Cystic duct, common hepatic duct, liver margin

Calot��_s triangle

58

RA and Coal worker pneuomoconiosis

Caplan syndrome

59

TR murmur increased with inspiration, decreased by Valsalva

Carvallo��_s sign

60

Benign lymph node tumors; hyperproliferation of B cells, sometimes assoc with HHV-8

Castleman��_s disease

61

Biopsy of aortopulmonary window nodes

Chamberlain procedure, modified

62

Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech

Charcot triad

63

Jaundice, fever, RUQ pain

Charcot triad of cholangitis

64

Seen in intraparenchymal hemorrhage

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms

65

Eosinophilic debris, seen in bronchial asthma

Charcot-Leyden crystals

66

Peroneal muscle atrophy, stork-like appearance, pes cavus, foot drop, claw hand

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

67

A=T and G=C (in DNA/RNA)

Charkof��_s Rule

68

Defective microtubular function; partial albinism, peripheral neuropathy, recurrent infections

Chediak-Higashi syndrome

69

Regularly irregular breathing with cyclic apnea, in bilateral hemispheric/diencephalon dysfunction

Cheyne-Stokes breathing

70

Talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joint; where eversion and inversion occur

Chopart��_s joint

71

Factor IX deficiency

Christmas disease

72

Forearm AVF; uses native blood vessels (radial artery, cephalic vein) (contrast with Scribner shunt)

Cimino-Brescia fistula

73

Flushing, dizziness, tinnitus, BOV, impaired hearing, nausea, diarrhea

Cinchonism

74

Deep inguinal node

Cloquet��_s node

75

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Conn syndrome

76

Mycobacterium infection; responsible for weight loss (releases cachectin and TNF-alpha)

Cord factor

77

Uteroplacental apoplexy; bleeding from abruptio into myometrium into peritoneum

Couvelaire uterus

78

Associated with herpetic infections

Cowdry Type A inclusion bodies

79

Yellow fever; viral hepatitis

Councilman bodies

80

Palpable nontender gallbladder (pancreatic head CA)

Courvoisier sign

81

Calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, Esophageal dysfunction, Sclerodactyly, Telangiectasia; ANA with anticentromere activity

CREST syndrome

82

Subacute Spongiform Encephalopathy; prion disease; 2 variants: Brownell-Oppenheimer (cerebellar ataxia) and Heidenhain (visual disturbances)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

83

Microcephaly, severe mental retardation, cat-like cry, hypertelorism

Cri-du-chat syndrome (5p deletion)

84

Regional enteritis; cobblestoned mucosa with skip lesions; segmental narrowing, �_�string sign�_�

Crohn disease

85

GI polyposis, alopecia, hyperpigmentation, nail atrophy

Cronkite-Canada syndrome

86

Premature craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, shallow orbits, proptosis

Crouzon Syndrome

87

Periumbilical ecchymoses (acute pancreatitis)

Cullen sign

88

Congenital sacral deformity, presacral mass, anal malformation

Currarino triad

89

Pathologic finding in asthma; from shed epithelium

Curschmann spirals

90

Gastric ulcer associated with burns

Curling ulcer

91

Cushing��_s syndrome caused by 1��_ pituitary adenoma

Cushing��_s disease

92

��_Cortisol (any etiology), HTN, trunal obesity, moon facies, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, amenorrhea, ��_libido, immunocompromise

Cushing��_s syndrome

93

Hypertension, bradycardia, respiratory depression

Cushing��_s triad

94

Gastric ulcer associated with brain injury

Cushing��_s ulcer

95

Empty RLQ in intussusception

Dance��_s sign

96

Large posterior fossa; absent cerebellum

Dandy-Walker malformation

97

Morning hyperglycemia not associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia

Dawn phenomenon

98

Idiopathic EPB and APL inflammation; more common in women

De Quervain��_s tenosynovitis

99

Subacute/granulomatous/giant cell thyroiditis, may be 2��_ to viral infxn, granulomatous inflammation

De Quervain��_s thyroiditis

100

Origin of lateral vestibulospinal tract

Deiter��_s nucleus

101

Rectoprostatic fascia

Denonvilliers��_ fascia

102

Wilms tumor, intersexual disorders, nephropathy [WT-1 gene abnormalities]

Denys-Drash syndrome

103

Congenital pure red cell aplasia; �_�HbF, �_�RBC ADA, �__ retic, triphalangeal thumbs

Diamond-Blackfan syndrome

104

Scarlet fever

Dick test

105

CATCH-22 syndrome

DiGeorge syndrome

106

Perisinusoidal space

Disse��_s space

107

IgG antibodies in hemolytic anemia

Donath-Landsteiner antibodies

108

Occurs when membrane is permeable to several (but not all) ions; not an osmotic equilibrium

Donnan equilibirium

109

Autoimmune post-MI fibrinous pericarditis (weeks post-MI)

Dressler��_s syndrome

110

Black liver; conjugated hyperbilirubinemia; benign

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

111

Deleted dystrophin gene; proximal limb weakness muscle breakdown; pseudohypertrophy of calves

Duchenne��_s muscular dystrophy

112

Progressive shortening, thickening, and fibrosis of palmar fascia and aponeurosis (MCP and PIP flexion of 4th and 5th digits).

Dupuytren��_s contracture

113

Seen in cerebral malaria; with ring hemorrhages

Durck��_s granuloma

114

Elongation of styloid process/calcification of stylohyoid; neck/face pain, dysphagia; CN IX compression

Eagle��_s syndrome

115

Prune-belly syndrome

Eagle-Barrett Syndrome

116

Tricuspid displacement into RV; assoc with WPW

Ebstein��_s anomaly

117

Micrognathia, rocker-bottom feet, congenital heart disease (trisomy 18)

Edward syndrome

118

��_Waiter��_s tip��_ deformity, C5-C6 palsy, may involve diaphragm (via phrenic nerve)

Erb-Duchenne Palsy

119

IVC valve at RA

Eustachian valve

120

Early-onset calcification of basal ganglia and cerebellum

Fahr syndrome

121

Aplastic anemia, short stature, �_�risk of CA; AR

Fanconi anemia

122

Proximal tubule dysfunction; (+) urine glucose, amino acids, phosphates

Fanconi syndrome

123

RA, splenomegaly, neutropenia

Felty��_s syndrome

124

Asbestos bodies; dumbbell-shaped

Ferruginous bodies

125

Perihepatic gonorrheal infection; �_�violin-string�_� adhesions

Fitz-Hugh-Curtiss syndrome

126

Bilateral renal hypoplasia, displacement of nipples to MCL, polymastia

Fleischer syndrome

127

Retinoblastoma

Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes

128

Frontal lobe tumor; inappropriate behavior, ipsilateral optic nerve atrophy, contralateral papilledema, anosmia

Foster-Kennedy syndrome

129

Necrotizing soft tissue perineal/scrotal infection, assoc with DM

Fournier��_s gangrene

130

Flushing and sweating in reaction to taste of food; follows auriculotemporal nerve injury

Frey��_s syndrome

131

Ataxia before 10yrs, explosive speech, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Friedrich ataxia

132

S: Internal oblique and transversus abd, M: Rectus muscle and sheath, L: Iliopsoas, I: Pecten pubis, lined by transversalis fascia; anatomic etiol. of hernia

Fruchaud��_s (myopectineal) orifice

133

Fx of distal 3rd of radius, dislocation of radioulnar joint

Galeazzi fracture

134

Deep perineal/investing fascia

Gallaudet��_s fascia

135

Murmur of AS reflected to mitral area (sounds like MR)

Gallavardin��_s phenomenon

136

Adenomatous polyps + osteomas

Gardner syndrome

137

Autoerythrocyte sensitivity, large ecchymoses on erythema

Gardner-Diamond syndrome

138

Iliotibial tract attachment

Gerdy��_s tubercle

139

Prion disease; familial; cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, corticospinal tract signs, nystagmus. AD, late-onset

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease

140

Na-Cl cotransporter mutation; similar to Bartter��_s but milder; resembles thiazide diuretic effect

Gitelman��_s syndrome

141

Defect of platelet aggregation (��_GP IIb-IIIa)

Glanzmann��_s thrombasthenia

142

Branchial cleft anomalies, biliary atresia, CHD

Goldenhar��_s complex

143

ptch mutation; basal cell nevus syndrome; basal cell CA, medulloblastoma, jaw cysts

Gorlin��_s syndrome

144

Use of upper limbs to stand; seen in Duchenne��_s muscular dystrophy

Gower��_s maneuver

145

Cause of recurrent ulceration post-vagotomy; from posterior vagus

[Criminal nerve of] Grassi

146

Myxedema

Gull disease

147

Compression of ulnar nerve at the wrist (between pisiform and hook of hamate); hypoesthesia of 4th and 5th digits; intrinsic hand muscle weakness

Guyon��_s canal syndrome

148

Pigmentary degeneration of globus pallidus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, corticospinal and EP signs, �_�eye of the tiger�_� sign

Hallervorden-Spatz Disease

149

Mediastinal �_�crunch�_� assoc with emphysema

Hamman sign

150

Peripheral triangle near pleural edges, in PE

Hampton��_s hump

151

Chronic progressive histiocytosis; skull lesions, DI, exophthalmos

Hand-Schuller-Christian disease

152

Infundibulum of gallbladder; common site for gallstone impaction

Hartmann��_s pouch

153

Impaired tryptophan absorption

Hartnup disease

154

Thymic medullary bodies

Hassal��_s bodies

155

Painless DIP nodules in osteoarthritis

Heberden��_s nodules

156

G6PD Deficiency

Heinz bodies

157

Cystic duct valve (maintains patency)

Valve of Heisler

158

Childhood disintegrative disorder

Heller dementia

159

Area at cardia where middle circular and innermost oblique gastric muscular fibers blend

Collar of Helvetius

160

Small-vessel vasculitis due to IgA-dominant immune-complex deposition; affects skin, joints, GI

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

161

Periportal bile ductule

Canal of Hering

162

Carotid sinus nerve (CN IX); baroreceptor

Hering��_s nerve

163

Intrinsic platelet defect and partial albinism

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

164

Secretory granules in posterior pituitary

Herring bodies

165

Inferior epigastric artery, Lateral border of rectus abdominis, Inguinal ligament

Hesselbach��_s triangle

166

Medial striate artery (from ACA; A2 segment)

Recurrent artery of Heubner

167

Spontaneous breakdown of atracurium, forms laudanosine (epileptogenic)

Hoffman elimination

168

Thumb anomalies, ASD (secundum) or VSD, phocomelia; T-box (TBX5) mutation

Holt-Oram syndrome

169

Calf pain with foot dorsiflexion, in DVT

Homan��_s sign

170

Neuroblastoma

Homer-Wright pseudorosettes

171

Temporal arteritis

Horton��_s disease

172

Nuclear remnants (Splenectomy)

Howell-Jolly bodies

173

Interstitial chronic cystitis, transmural fibrosis, ulceration

Hunner ulcer

174

Adductor canal

Hunter��_s canal

175

_-L-iduronidase deficiency, similar to Hurler��_s but no corneal clouding

Hunter��_s disease

176

Avulsion of ischial tuberosity at the attachment of biceps femoris and semitendinosus

Hurdler��_s injury

177

_-L-iduronidase deficiency; heparan and dermatan sulfate accumulation; gargoyle facies; corneal clouding, stubby fingers, death by 10 years

Hurler syndrome

178

Prolonged QT, hearing loss

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome

179

IFN-_ deficiency; coarse Facies, cold Abscess, retained primary Teeth, ��_IgE, Dermatoses (FATED)

Job��_s syndrome

180

Congenital anosmia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; X-linked

Kallman syndrome

181

Flexion, swelling, pain on passive extension, tenderness over tendon sheath

Kanavel��_s four signs of tenosynovitis

182

Dynein dysfunction; bronchiectasis, sinusitis, situs inversus

Kartagener syndrome

183

Hemangioma and thrombocytopenia and fibrinogenopenia

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

184

Mitochondrial DNA disorder; progressive ophthalmoplegia, pigmentary retinopathy, 3rd-deg AV block, ataxia, myopathy, �_�CSF protein

Kearns-Sayre syndrome

185

Circular intestinal folds

Valves of Kerckring

186

Congestive cardiomyopathy 2��_ to selenium deficiency

Keshan disease

187

Intercapillary glomerulosclerosis seen in DM nephropathy

Kimmelstein-Wilson lesions

188

�_�Cloverleaf�_� skull secondary to premature closure of all sutures

Kleeblattsch_del

189

Episodic somnolence (>18h/day), overeating, cognitive disturbances; possibly hypothalamic in origin

Kleine-Levin syndrome

190

Atrophic testes, tall stature, gynecomastia

Klinefelter syndrome (XXY, XXXY)

191

Congenital cervical vertebral fusion; short, immobile neck

Klippel-Feil syndrome

192

Thoracic outlet syndrome (C8-T1)

Klumpke��_s palsy

193

Amygdala lesion; hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperphagia, hyperdocility

Kl��_ver-Bucy syndrome

194

Psoriatic lesion eruption at sites of trauma

K_bner phenomenon

195

Avascular necrosis of navicular bone

K_hler bone disease

196

Memory impairment and confabulation

Korsakoff��_s syndrome

197

Congenital neutropenia

Kostmann syndrome

198

Urea cycle/ornithine cycle

Krebs-Henseleit cycle

199

Gastric CA metastatic to ovaries

Krukenberg tumor

200

Liver macrophages

Kupffer cells

201

Acidotic breathing, deep, rapid breaths

Kussmaul��_s breathing

202

Pulsus paradoxus

Kussmaul��_s pulse

203

Distension of neck veins with inspiration (cardiac tamponade)

Kussmaul��_s sign

204

Lentigenes, Atrial myxomas, Mucocutaneous myxomas, Blue nevi/Nevi, Atrial myx., Myxoid neurofibroma, Ephelides (freckles)

LAMB/NAME syndrome

205

NMJ disease, Anti-presynaptic Ca2+ channel, proximal muscle weakness improving with use (contrast with MG); assoc with small cell lung CA

Lambert-Eaton Syndrome

206

8q24.1; Multiple cone-shaped epiphyses, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, upturned nares, bulbous nasal tip, large ears

Langer-Giedion syndrome (Tricho-rhino-phalangeal type II)

207

Ulcerative colitis

�_�Lead pipe�_� appearance of colon

208

Mitochondrial DNA disorder; subacute bilateral central vision loss; retinal microangiopathy

Leber��_s hereditary optic neuropathy

209

Idiopathic avascular necrosis of femoral head

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

210

Subacute necrotizing encephalopathy, mitochondrial disorder

Leigh disease

211

Lentigenes, ECG abn., Ocular hypertelorism, Pulm. stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, Deafness

LEOPARD syndrome

212

Radial growth phase of melanoma

Lentigo maligna

213

HGPRT deficiency; hyperuricemia, gout, self-mutilation, choreoathetosis, aggression

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

214

Seborrheic keratosis associated with visceral malignancy

Leser-Trelat sign

215

Acute disseminated Langherhans cell histiocytosis; hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, infections, pulmonary involvement

Letterer-Siwe disease

216

Parkinsonism with dementia; hallucinations; _-synuclein defect

Lewy body disease

217

Electric shock-like pain radiating down the spine or legs with neck flexion (in MS)

Lhermitte��_s sign

218

p53 mutation Familial cancer syndrome; increased incidence of soft tissue sarcomas and other malignancies

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

219

Cardiac lesion in SLE

Libman-Sacks endocarditis

220

Pigmented iris hamartomas in von Recklinghausen��_s

Lisch nodules

221

Tarsometatarsal joint

Lisfranc��_s joint

222

Pulmonary ascariasis and hepatitis

Loeffler��_s syndrome

223

Endomyocardial fibrosis with eosinophilic infiltrate

L_ffler��_s syndrome

224

Sacrcoidosis, erythema nodosum, hilar lymphadenopathy, anterior uveitis, polyarthritis

L_fgren syndrome

225

Calcaneal fracture, usually involves subtalar joint

Lover��_s fracture

226

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (>30% involvement)

Lyell��_s syndrome

227

HNPCC, high risk for malignancy

Lynch syndrome

228

Transverse cervical ligament

Cardinal ligament of Mackenrodt

229

Blue lesions, dyschondroplasia, osteochondromas

Mafucci��_s syndrome

230

Periportal space

Mall��_s space

231

Alcoholic hepatitis

Mallory bodies

232

Mucosal and submucosal esophageal tears

Mallory-Weiss tears

233

Juvenile multiple sclerosis

Marburg disease

234

Ankylosing spondylosis

Marie-Strumpell disease

235

Fibrillin deficiency; arachnodactyly, ectopia lentis, aordic dissection/dissecting aneurysm, MVP

Marfan syndrome

236

Mullerian agenesis; absent cervix, uterus, vagina, but normal hormones

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome

237

In onchocerciasis (from dying organisms): Fever, rash, ocular damage, joint pains, lymphangitis, hypotension, pyrexia, respiratory distress, prostration

Mazzotti reaction

238

RHD; White plaques in posterior LA from turbulent flow

McCallum plaques

239

Persistent vitelline duct; 2 in. long, 2ft from ileocecal valve, 2% of pop., 1st 2 yrs of life, 2 epithelial types

Meckel��_s diverticulum

240

Bilateral ovarian fibroma; hydrothorax, ascites

Meig��_s syndrome

241

Orofacial dystonia; dystonia and tardive dyskinesia

Meige��_s syndrome

242

Recurrent facial paralysis, swelling of lips, development of tongue folds

Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome

243

Chemical pneumonitis caused by aspiration during anesthesia; assoc with obstetric anesthesia

Mendelson��_s syndrome

244

Gastric hypertrophy with protein loss, parietal cell atrophy, and ��_mucous cells. Precancerous

Menetrier��_s disease

245

Tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo

Meniere��_s disease

246

�_�Kinky hair disease; X-linked-recessive Cu deficiency; hypotonia, sagging facial features, MR, brittle hair, metaphyseal widening

Menkes disease

247

Rare, potentially lethal neuroendocrine tumor

Merkel cell CA

248

Lacrimal and salivary gland enlargement 2��_ to leukemia, sarcoid

Mikulicz syndrome

249

17p13.3-; microcephaly, lissencephaly, pachygyria, seizures, MR

Miller-Dieker syndrome

250

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase autoantibodies

251

Extrinsic obstruction of common hepatic duct by cystic duct stone

Mirizzi syndrome

252

Calcifications of tunica media; esp. radial/ulnar; ��_pipestem��_ arteries

Monckeburg��_s arteriosclerosis

253

Thrombophlebitis of superficial breast veins

Mondor��_s disease

254

Ulnar fx with dislocation of radial head

Monteggia fracture

255

Mucopolysaccharidosis (Type IV), urine keratin sulfate, dwarfism, short neck, protruding sternum, kyphosis, flat nose, prominent upper jaw, waddling gait, multiple fractures

Morquio syndrome

256

Tender neuroma between 3rd and 4th toes; caused by high-heeled pointed shoes

Morton neuroma

257

Basal cerebral rete mirabile; segmental stenosis of ICAs

Moyamoya

258

Acute guttate parapsoriasis / Pityriasis lichenoides at varioliformis acuta; Papulonecrotic papules

Mucha-Habermann disease

259

Urticaria, deafness, amyloidosis, episodic fever

Muckle-Wells syndrome

260

Associated with psoriasis

Munro��_s abscesses

261

Cutaneous t-cell lymphoma; resembles psoriasis

Mycoses fungoides

262

Neural intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions; seen in rabies

Negri bodies

263

ASIS to ischial tuberosity; passes over greater trochanter

Nelaton��_s line

264

Post-adrenalectomy overgrowth of pituitary adenoma

Nelson��_s syndrome

265

Turner-like syndrome affecting males, short stature, MR, webbed neck, PS, pectus excavatum

Noonan syndrome

266

Cecal dilatation in bedridden/critically ill patients

Ogilvie syndrome

267

Idiopathic hypoventilation syndrome

Ondine��_s curse

268

Hoarseness; Enlarged LA impinges on recurrent laryngeal nerve

Ortner��_s syndrome

269

Traction apophysitis of tibial tubercle; overuse injury

Osgood-Schlatter disease

270

Painful nodules at pads of fingers and toes; in IE

Osler��_s nodes

271

Polycythemia vera

Osler-Vaquez disease

272

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (nosebleeds, skin discoloration)

Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome

273

Ovarian enlargement, ascites, hypovolemia, shock (side effect of ovulation induction)

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

274

Osteitis deformans, unknown etiology; bone pain, high-output failure, hearing loss, osteosarcoma

Paget disease of bone

275

Small intestine; base of crypts of Lieberkuhn; prominent eosinophilic apical granules; defensive cells; long-lived

Paneth cells

276

Neoplastic T-cells in epidermis; Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

Pautrier microabscesses

277

Iron granules

Pappenheimer bodies

278

Assoc with cat-scratch disease, tularemia, unilateral conjunctivitis with preauricular LAD

Parinaud conjunctivitis

279

Pineal tumor; sunset eyes, loss of upward gaze

Parinaud syndrome

280

Junctions of: cystic/common bile duct, 2nd/3rd part of duodenum, neck/body of pancreas; most common location of gastrinomas

Passaro��_s triangle

281

Palatopharyngeal sphincter

Passavant��_s ridge

282

Microphthalmia, microcephaly, brain abnormalities, CLAP, polydactyly, rocker-bottom feet, CHD

Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)

283

Night terror; stage 3-4 sleep; seen in children

Pavor nocturnus

284

Facial suffusion, syncope on arm-raising due to retrosternal goiter

Pemberton��_s sign

285

Thyroid organification defect, hearing loss

Pendred syndrome

286

Benign polyposis; perioral hyperpigmentation

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

287

Bent penis; acquired fibrous tissue formation

Peyronie��_s disease

288

Turribrachycephaly, syndactyly, broad thumbs and 1st toes; autosomal dominant

Pfeiffer syndrome

289

Frontotemporal dementia; intracellular tau protein

Pick��_s disease

290

Hypertension, cor pulmonale, polycythemia, OSA, obesity

Pickwickian syndrome

291

Micrognathia, glossoptosis, cleft palate

Pierre-Robin sequence

292

Hyperthyroidism, nodular goiter, absence of exophthalmos

Plummer disease

293

Atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs, IDA

Plummer-Vinson syndrome

294

Amastia, rib defects, chest wall hypoplasia, brachysyndactyly

Poland syndrome

295

Portal vein (posterior), common bile duct (ant. R), hepatic artery (ant. L) in hepatoduodenal lig.

Portal triad

296

Eversion injury; avulsion of medial malleolus, fibular fx

Pott��_s fracture

297

Bilateral renal agenensis; oligohydramnios; limb and facial deformities; pulmonary hypoplasia

Potter��_s syndrome

298

Inguinal ligament

Poupart��_s ligament

299

Obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, mental retaradation, 15q11-13

Prader-Willi syndrome

300

��_ 10mmHg in BP on inspiration (cardiac tamponade, OSA, asthma, pericarditis, croup)

Pulsus paradoxus (Kussmaul��_s pulse)

301

Aortic stenosis; delayed upstroke of carotid pulse

Pulsus parvus et tardus

302

Sudden loss of vision in Pt with acute pancreatitis; cotton-wool spots/hemorrhages at macula

Purtscher��_s retinopathy

303

Angioedema

Quincke��_s edema

304

Herpes Zoster; Facial palsy, ageusia in anterior 2/3 of tongue, vesicles in EAC

Ramsay-Hunt syndrome

305

Ghon focus + perihilar lymph node

Ranke focus

306

CD30+ and CD15+ giant B-cells, ��_owl��_s eye,��_ characteristic of Hodgkin��_s lymphoma

Reed-Sternberg cells

307

Defect in phytanic acid oxidation; AR; Neuropathy, retinal pigmentation, ataxia, anosmia, deafness, skin lesions, �_� CSF proteins

Refsum disease

308

Stapes, styloid, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid lig.

Reichert��_s cartilage

309

Found in Leydig cells in adults; function unknown

Reinke��_s crystals

310

Inhibitory cells in ventral horn of spinal cord; inhibited by tetanus toxin

Renshaw cells

311

Common in girls, midline handwringing, regression, sighing, ataxia, bruxism, seizures

Rett syndrome

312

Retropubic space

Space of Retzius

313

Charcot��_s triad plus hypotension and mental status changes

Reynold��_s pentad

314

Tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency (Type II tyrosinemia)

Richner-Hanhart syndrome

315

Thyroid replacement by fibrous tissue, unknown etiology

Riedel thyroiditis

316

Familial dysautonomia

Riley-Day syndrome

317

SMA and IMA collateral

Arc of Riolan

318

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

Ritter��_s disease

319

Long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes join with common centromere with loss of short arms

Robertsonian translocation

320

Onchocerciasis/�_�river blindness�_�

Robles disease

321

Gallbladder mucosa penetrating into muscularis layer; early indicator of pathologic change, seen in chronic cholecystitis

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses

322

PIlocytic astrocytoma; eosinophilic corkscrew fibers in astrocytes

Rosenthal fibers

323

Nodes between pectoralis major and minor

Rotter��_s nodes

324

16p13-; Microcephaly, ptosis, beaked nose, low philtrum, broad thumbs, large toes, MR

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

325

Intramural portion of ureter (ureterovesical valve)

Valve of Sampson

326

Nasal polyp, ASA sensitivity, asthma

Samter��_s triad

327

Lipid metabolism disorder, hexaminidase a and b deficiency

Sandhoff disease

328

Progressive pigmented purpuric dermatitis

Schamberg disease

329

Submucosal ring in lower esophagus; assoc. w/ drug intake; not assoc. with CA

Schatzi��_s ring

330

Laminated concretions of Ca and proteins, seen in sarcoidosis

Schaumann bodies

331

Dialysis access procedure; uses Teflon tube with 2 needles

Scribner shunt

332

Hematogenous invasion of mycosis fungoides

Sezary-Lutzner syndrome

333

Piebaldism, Hirschsprung��_s disease

Shah-Waardenburg syndrome

334

Multiple systems atrophy; Parkinsonism; UMN/LMN, cerebellar, autonomic dysfunction

Shy-Drager syndrome

335

Dry eye, dry mouth

Sicca syndrome

336

Pituitary cachexia; generalized panhypopituitarism

Simmonds disease

337

MEN IIa

Sipple Syndrome

338

Dry eye, dry mouth, (sicca syndrome), plus autoimmune disease (commonly RA)

Sjogren syndrome

339

Paraurethral glands (homologous to prostate); lateral and inferior to urethral meatus

Skene��_s glands

340

Deep fibular nerve entrapment

Ski-boot syndrome

341

17p11.2; Brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, prognathism, myopia, short stature

Smith-Magenis

342

Hyperglycemia following hypoglycemia (as in post-breakfast)

Somogyi effect

343

LGA, MR, hydrocephalus, pointed chin

Sotos syndrome

344

Hernia along the lateral border of rectus abdominis

Spigelian hernia

345

Nevus with cytologic atypia; resembles hemangioma; always benign

Spitz nevus

346

Hepatic dysfunction as paraneoplastic syndrome of Renal Cell CA

Stauffer syndrome

347

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Stein-Leventhal syndrome

348

Parotid duct

Stensen��_s duct

349

Lymphangiosarcoma in post-mastectomy, post-RT patients

Stewart-Treves sydrome

350

Juvenile Rheumatoid arthritis

Still disease

351

Syncope and convulsions 2��_ to complete heart block, HR<40

Stokes-Adams syndrome

352

�_�Port wine�_� stain on face, leptomeningeal angiomatosis

Sturg-Weber disease

353

Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis; Red plaques/nodules on head, neck, UE; neutrophilic infiltrate

Sweet��_s syndrome

354

SCID; T and B cell deficiency; severe infections, failure to thrive, GvH disease

Swiss-type agammaglobulinemia

355

Acatalasemia

Takahara��_s disease

356

Familial _-lipoprotein deficiency, low HDL, orange/yellow tonsils

Tangier��_s disease

357

Type VII glycogen storage disease, muscle PFK deficiency, least common; hemolytic anemia, muscle weakness

Tarui disease

358

Gastrocnemius strain

�_�Tennis leg�_�

359

Coronary sinus valve at RA

Thebesian valve

360

Myotonia congenital; tonic muscle spasms

Thomsen��_s disease

361

Aseptic costochondritis of rib cartilage

Tietze��_s syndrome

362

RSBI (rapid shallow breathing index); freq/TV, if 105, 80% failure

Tobin index

363

Sebaceous adenomas, multiple GI CA, laryngeal, GU, endomet CA

Torre syndrome

364

Mandibulofacial dystosis (also known as Franceschetti syndrome)

Treacher Collins syndrome

365

Migratory thrombophlebitis; pancreatic/visceral CA

Trousseau��_s phenomenon

366

Muscle spasm from pressure applied to upper ex.; due to hypocalcemia

Trousseau��_s sign

367

TSC-1 and -2 mutation; angiofibroma and renal angiomyolipoma

Tuberous sclerosis

368

Adenomatous polyps + gliomas

Turcot syndrome

369

Flank ecchymoses (acute pancreatitis)

[Grey]-Turner sign

370

Female hypogonadism, short stature, webbed neck, shield-like chest

Turner syndrome (XO)

371

Secretes smegma; preputial gland

Tyson��_s gland

372

Retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss

Usher syndrome

373

VIPoma; WDHA syndrome, Watery Diarrhea, Hypokalemia, Achlorhydria

Verner-Morrison syndrome

374

Supraclavicular nodes

Virchow��_s nodes

375

Stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage

Virchow��_s triad

376

Vitiligo, aseptic meningitis, uveitis, tinnitus, dysacusis

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

377

Forearm muscle contracture 2��_ to supracondylar fracture of the humerus and subsequent brachial artery spasm

Volkmann��_s contracture

378

Lingual glands

[serous glands of] Von Ebner

379

Failure of upper eyelid to follow downward gaze; in Graves

Von Graefe��_s sign

380

Hemangioblastomas of retina/cerebellum/medulla; assoc with Renal Cell CA; deleted VHL gene; chromosome 3p

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

381

Neurofibromatosis

Von Recklinghausen��_s disease

382

Osteitis fibrosa cystica, ��_brown tumor��_

Von Recklinghausen��_s disease of bone

383

Psoriasis variant; Fever, generalized sterile pustules

Von Zumbusch pustular psoriasis

384

Piebaldism, congenital SNHL, dystopia canthorum, heterochromic irises, broad nasal root

Waardenburg syndrome

385

Wilms tumor, Aniridia, GU malformations, mental Retardation

WAGR Syndrome

386

Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, related to multiple myeloma

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

387

Papillary cystademona lymphomatosum, usually in parotid

Warthin tumors

388

Multinucleate giant cells; seen in measles

Warthin-Finkeldy cells

389

Septic shock 2��_ to meningococcemia (MRS); Adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia (1st Aid)

Waterhouse-Friedrichsen syndrome

390

For urinary porphobilinogen; Acute intermittent porphyria

Watson-Schwartz test

391

Friction-induced ischial bursitis

Weaver��_s bottom

392

Necrotizing granulomas in lung and upper resp., focal necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing GN; c-ANCA

Wegener��_s granulomatosis

393

Store P-selectins

Weibel-Palade bodies

394

Infantile spinal muscular atrophy; �_�floppy baby;�_� AR

Werdnig-Hoffman disease

395

MEN-1

Wermer syndrome

396

Encephalopathy due to thiamin deficiency; common in alcoholics

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

397

Diminished pulmonary vascular markings, in PE

Westermark��_s sign

398

Malabsorption syndrome; Tropheryma whippelii (G+), PAS-positive macrophages in lamina propria, mesenteric nodes; idiopathic steatorrhea

Whipple��_s disease

399

Symptomatic fasting hypoglycemia, FBS <50mg/dL, relief of symptoms with glucose admin; seen in insulinoma

Whipple��_s triad

400

Lichen planus, white plaques

Wickham striae

401

Friendly, talkative; elfin facies; MR, AS, hypercalcemia

Williams syndrome

402

Omental foramen (communication bet. greater and lesser sac)

Foramen of Winslow

403

Enlargement of posterior auricular nodes seen in T. gambiense infection

Winterbottom��_s sign

404

X-linked IgM defect; recurrent infections, thrombocytopenic purpura; eczema; �_� IgA

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

405

4p-; �_�Greek helmet�_� facies, ptosis, strabismus, nystagmus, hypospadias, MR

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

406

Inhibition of thyroid hormone organification by excess I-

Wolff-Chaikoff effect

407

Type 1 DM, DI, optic atrophy, SNHL, bladder dysfunction

Wolfram sydrome

408

Seen in mature arterial thrombi

Lines of Zahn

409

Neuroectodermal round/oval chief cells; in carotid body tumors

Zellballen nests

410

Cerebrohepatorenal syndrome; absent peroxisomes in all tissues

Zellweger��_s syndrome

411

False diverticulum above cricopharyngeus; mucosal herniation; halitosis, dysphagia, obstruction

Zenker��_s diverticulum

412

Paraaortic ganglia/bodies (can be a site of pheochromocytoma)

Zuckerkandl��_s bodies