What nerve is most likely to be damaged in a humeral shaft fracture?
An externally rotated hip is most suggestive of what pathology?
Fractured neck of femur
If a patient presents with a joint problem, what 4 things should you always ask about?
Pain, stiffness, weakness, loss of movement
What muscles are primarily responsible for flexion of the knee? What is the nerve supply?
Hamstrings - supplied by the sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
Steinmann's test assesses for what injury?
Acute meniscal tear
Performing internal rotation against resistance assesses which rotator cuff muscle power?
Arterial supply to the hip is largely via which arteries?
Medial and lateral circumflex arteries (branches of the profunda femoris artery)
What muscle is the chief flexor of the hip joint? What is its nerve supply?
Iliopsoas - anterior rami of L1-L3
Describe Phalen's test used to assess for carpal tunnel syndrome?
Holding wrist in flexion for 30 seconds should recreate the pain
Where should you assess sensation of the median nerve?
Lateral aspect of index finger
Loss of which movement is most sensitive for indicating shoulder pathology, especially frozen shoulder?
If a knee injury is thought to be significant, what is the best investigation to use?
Patients will not be able to straight leg raised if they have damage to which muscles or which nerve?
Quadriceps muscles or femoral nerve
During a femoral stretch test, back pain radiating down the anterior leg is suggestive of what pathology?
L4 nerve root compression
Pain in the anterior mid-groin is most suggestive of pathology where?
The hip joint itself
What spinal movements should be assessed within a GALS exam?
Lateral flexion of cervical spine and flexion of lumbar spine
Which movements of the lower limb should be assessed within a GALS exam?
Flexion and extension of the knee, internal rotation of the hip
A total hip replacement or posterior hip dislocation are most likely to cause damage to which nerve?
What muscle is responsible for external rotation of the knee joint? What is its nerve supply?
Biceps femoris - supplied by the sciatic nerve (L4-S3)
Which nerve is most likely to be damaged in an anterior shoulder dislocation or humeral neck fracture?
A fixed flexion deformity of the hip is most commonly caused by which pathology?
What is the cause of a 1) True and 2) Apparent leg length discrepancy?
1) Bony/joint pathology 2) pelvic tilting (e.g. fixed flexion deformity, scoliosis)
Other than the iliopsoas, what other muscles are responsible for flexion at the hip joint? What is their nerve supply?
The anterior compartment of the thigh (quadriceps femoris, sartorius, pectineus) - supplied by the femoral nerve (L2-L4)
What muscles are responsible for external rotation of the hip? What is their nerve supply?
Lots of muscles, but specifically the external rotator group, innervated by the lumbosacral plexus (L4-S2)
AVN of the femoral head is most likely caused by damage to which artery?
Medial circumflex artery
If taking a history of knee pain, what are some useful symptoms to ask about?
Giving way, locking, clicking/catching
Where should you assess sensation of the axillary nerve?
Regimental badge patch area
A Thomas' test for a fixed flexion deformity is positive if what happens?
The thigh lifts off the couch
If a patient presents with a joint problem that you suspect could be systemic, other than those already discussed in the systemic enquiry, what are some other important systems to ask about?
Skin changes and/or eye problems
Which nerve is most likely to be damaged in a posterior elbow dislocation?