Flashcards in MSK Deck (148)
Primary vs. secondary forms (Paget radiation). Most common primary tumor of bone (B-cell lymphoma is most common overall). Found around knee. Bimodal (10-20 and >65). Codman's triangle = raised periosteum. Secretes osteoid. Rarely invades epiphysis.
Pump out H+ produce by carbonic anhydrase against gradient into Howship lacunae to release calcium, phosphoric acid, and carbonic acid.
Lumbar lordosis etio?
Imbalance of hip flexion > extension. Obesity, pregnancy, osteoporosis, discitis, kyphosis, spondylithesis, achondroplasia
Triad of reactive arthritis, urethritis, and conjunctivitis 2/2 to urogenital infection (Chlamydia) or GI inf (Salmonella, Shigella, Campy, Yersinia). HLA-B27 associated.
Superficial inguinal LN's drain what structures?
Cutaneous lymph from umbilicus to feed except posterior calf (popliteal LN's). Includes external genitalia (e.g. scrotum) and anus up to dentate line.
Most common congenital anomaly
Accessory nipple = polythelia. Failure to involute. Usu. asymptomatic, although may become so during pregnancy or lactation.
Deep inguinal LN's drain what structures?
Glans/clitoris + superficial inguinal LN's
Layers of the epidermis?
Californians Like Girls in String Bikinis. Stratum Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basale.
At what epidermal layer are the cells starting to die?
Granulosum -> Lucidum
Zonula adherens vs. Macula adherens?
Zonula adherens is the adherent junction. Belt below the tight junction connecting actin cytoskeletons of cells with CADherins. Loss of E-cadherin promotes metastasis. Macula adherents are desmosomes (Desmoplakin; site of pemphigus vulgarism auto ab's)
Tight junction make-up?
Claudins and occludins
Gap junction make-up?
Connexon with central channel
Integrins vs. cadherins?
Integrins on basolateral membrane with the hemidesmosomes. Cadherins with the adherents junction (belt).
Valgus vs. varus?
Varys is wide. Valgus is knock-kneed.
External rotation of knee (varus stress)--> pain from MEDIAL meniscus. Pain on internal rotation (valgus stress) is LATERAL meniscus.
Where do you do a pudendal nerve block?
Where is McBurneys point?
2/3 of distance from umbilicus to ASIS (right)
F(x) of supraspinatus and nerve?
Abduct arm before deltoid. Suprascapular nerve.
F(x) of infraspinatus and nerve?
Lateral rotation of arm. Suprascapular nerve.
F(x) of teres minor and nerve?
Adduction and lateral rotation of arm. Axillary nerve.
F(x) of subscapularis and nerve?
Medial rotation and adduction. Subscapular nerve.
Most common rotator cuff tear?
Ulnar nerve injury that localizes to wrist?
Probably outstretched hand. Hook of hamate.
Wrist bone most commonly fractured?
Acronym for wrist bones.
So Long to Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb. Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform. Hamate, Capitate, Trapezoid, Trapezium.
Guyon canal syndrome?
Ulnar nerve compression at wrist or hand. Classically for cyclist and handlebar pressure.
Lower trunk (C8-T1) -> CLAW hand. Often 2/2 to upward traction during delivery or breaking fall with arm.
Upper trunk (C5-C6) -> waiter's tip. Unable to abduct arm (deltoid, supraspinatus), laterally rotate (infraspinatus), flex or supinate (biceps brachii)
General differences between distal and proximal median/ulnar nerve "clawing?"
Distal lesions are worse and seen with extension of the fingers/at rest (cannot extend). Proximal lesions are less pronounced and tend to be seen during voluntary flexion (cannot flex).