Flashcards in Pharm Deck (201)
Endothelial cells have muscarinic receptors; cholinergic agonist bind -> release of NO (EDRF) -> guanylate cyclase -> dec. Ca2+ -> decreased activity of myosin light-chain kinase --> myosin light chain DEphosphorylation and SMC relaxation
Order the insulins in terms of earliest to latest peak
Aspart/lispro/glulisine, regular, NPH, detemir, glargine
Lithium toxicity symptoms? tx
Tremors, fascicular twitching, agitation, ataxia, delirium; tx with hemodialysis for acute. Can also cause hypothyroidism and nephrogenic diabetes inspidus.
Drugs that could increased Li levels?
Thiazides (increased proximal Na reabsorption as compensation to distal effects), ACEi, NSAIDs
Name the short benzos?
Alprazolam (Xanax), Triazolam, Oxazepam.
OATs. Tri- and eat your OATs quickly in the morning.
Name the long benzos?
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), Diazepam (Valium), Flurazepam, Clorazepate. Long view: Libreate and Valor.
Name the medium benzos?
Lorazepam (Ativan), estazolam, temazepam.
live and LET die. Medium-lvl bond movie.
Reverse benzos with?
Acute neonatal narcotic withdrawal?
Pupillary dilation, rhinorrhea, sneezing, d, n/v, chills. tx = diluted tincture of opium
B-adrenergic agonist B1>B2 --> Positive inotropy, weakly positive chronotropic, increases conduction velocity (arrhythmias), increases myocardial oxygen consumption
Fever, mucosal/axillary dryness, cutaneous flushing, mydriasis (big), cycloplegia, delirium. e.g. TCA's, atropine
What drugs more effective against HSV and VZV than CMV/EBV?
Acyclovir, famciclovir, valaciclovir. B/c dependnet on a thymidine kinase to turn into active triphosphate form.
Efavirenz (NNRTI), tenofovir, lamivudine
CCR5 receptor inhibitors
Surgery + liver damage?
Inhaled anesthetics (e.g. halothane) associated w/ highly lethal fulminant hepatitis - aminotransferase, PTT inc, eosinophilia
Blocks peripheral conversion of testosterone to DHT
Androgen hormone-receptor blocker
Origin substem for -mab's
Mouse (-o-), Human (-u-), Chimeric w/ foreign variable (-xi), Humanized w/ completementarity determining regions (-zu), chimeric/humanized hybrid (-xizu)
Statin + fibrates
Myopathy risk. Simvastatin has highest risk.
Partial agonist to nicotinic ACh receptors -> reduced nicotine withdrawal and reduced reward. (A4B4 nicotinic receptor)
Efficacy vs. potency
Efficacy = intrinsic ability of drug to elicit an effect (maximum effect). E.g. analgesics, abc, antihistamines, decongestants. Potency = dose of drug required to produce a given affect (Km related). Highly potent drugs include chemo, antiHTN, lipid-lowering. Potent dose, Kim! Max, more efficacious please.
Diuretic. Also side effect = increased Calcium absorption. Therefore, a nice drug for older women with HTN.
Opioid designed for decreased abuse. Partial agonist and weak antagonist at mu receptors. Can lead to withdrawal symptoms in patients who are dependent on opioids.