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Retroperitoneal hematoma in STABLE patient most likely due to?

Pancreatic injury


Most common duodenal ulcer location and presentation?

Anteriorly - perf; If posterior, more likely to erode gastroduodenal artery -> hemorrhage


Femoral neck fx frequently damages what vessel?

MEDIAL femoral circumflex artery -> avascular necrosis of femoral head


Rotator cuff muscles?

SITS - supraspinatus, infrapinatus, teres minor, subscapularis


Most commonly injured rotator cuff syndrome structure?

Tendon of supraspinatus muscle - empty can test


Nursemaid's elbow affects what structure?

Radial head subluxation b/c of sudden traction of outstretched and pronated arm. Annular ligament is torn and displaced. Deep branch of radial nerve is often damaged --> wrist drop


ACL and PCL in relation to fibula?

ACL attaches from fibula(lateral)-side of femur to medial part of tibia. Lateral impact ACL! PCL attaches from medial-epicondyle of femur to middle-part of tibia.


Trendelenburg gait?

Hip drops when ipsilateral foot lifted. Injury to contralateral superior gluteal nerve or gluteus medius muscle (outside hip can't contract)


Transverse spinal cord sections

Higher cervical cord is ovoid.
Thoracic cord and L2 has intermediolateral cell columns (lateral grey matter horns)
Lower cord has LARGE ventral horns and less white matter.


What neves go through the jugular foramen?

CN IX, X, XI, and jugular vein


Pharyngeal pouch III

Parathyroid gland (inf.) and thymus


Pharyngeal pouch IV

Parathyroid gland (sup.) and ultimo-branchilal body


Pharyngeal pouch II

Palatine tonsil


Pharyngeal pouch I

Epithelium of middle ear and auditory tube. Membrane -> tympanic membrane. Groove -> epithelium of external ear canal


Housemaid's knee

Prepatellar bursa (btwn patella and skin and tendon).


Anserine bursitis

Pain along MEDIAL aspect. Overuse injury or chronic trauma. I PROLLY had this when running.


Cleft lip vs. cleft palate dvpt?

Cleft lip - maxillary prominences fail to fuse w/ intermaxillary segment. Cleft palate when palatine shelves of maxillary prominence fail to fuse with one another or with the primery palate.


Sites of ulnar nerve injury

Medial epicondyle of humerus OR Guyon's canal near hook of hamate + pisiform bone of wrist


Superior thyroid artery close to nerve at risk during surgery

External branch of superior laryngeal nerve, which innervates the crycothyroid muscle. Recurrent laryngeal innervates the arytenoids and aryepiglotticus)


Direct vs. indirect inguinal hernias

Direct in Hesselbach's triangle (rectus abdominis, inf. epigastric, inguinal ligament). Less prone to incarceration and don't go down scrotum. Indirect are lateral to inf. epigastric arteries and are 2/2 to failure of obliteration of processes vaginalis --> protrusion in deep inguinal ring --> scrotum.


Sympathetic output to viscera how?

Two neuron set-up. Preganglionic synapse in chain w/ ACh-N. Postganglionic neurons releases NE in cleft of target organs. Adrenal glands are directly innervated and sweat glands innervated w/ post-ganglionic w/ Ach-Muscarinics.


Ectoderm derivatives

Neural tube -> CNS, POSTerior pituitary, pineal gland, retina. Neural crest -> ganglia, Schwann, pia and arachnoid, aorticoopulmonary septum and endocardial cushions, branchial arches, skull bones, melanocytes, adrenal medulla. Surface ectoderm -> Rathke's pouch (ANT. pituitary), lens and cornea, inner ear, olfactory epithelium, nasal and oral epithelium, epiderms, salivary, sweat, and mammary glands.


Common cardinal veins?

Embryological structure that drain into sinus venous. Become SVC and other parts of venous circ.


Cough reflex

Afferent mediated by INTERNAL laryngeal nerve (CN X).


Taste mediated by what cranial nerves?

Base = IX. Ant. 2/3 = VII.


Ventromedial nuclei of hypothalamus

Involved with satiety signaling. Lesion -> hyperphagia and obesity, aggressive, savage behavior.


Lateral nuclei of hypothalamus

Hunger signaling. Lesion -> loss of desire to eat -> FTT/starvation


Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus

Produce ADH and oxytocin down to posterior pituitary where hormones are released


Anterior nuclei of hypothalamus

Temperature control. Coordinate cooling by stimulating parasympathetic. Lesions -> hyperthermia and death


Posterior nuclei of hypothalamus

Temperature control. Control heat production when cold. Lesion -> hypothermia