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Biology 70% > Muscle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscle Deck (43):
1

Define muscle

a multicellular unit

2

Types of Muscle

Skeletal Muscle (Voluntary) - Produce movement

Smooth Muscle (Involuntary) - Found in walls of GI tract, uterus, bladder, arteries and veins, various duct

Cardiac Muscle (Heart)

3

Describe how does muscle enable movement

- Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by tendon
- Movement is produced when muscle contracted and hence bending the skeleton at joints

4

The connecting tendon closest to the head/ body is called ___________. It is also _________. The other end called__________

Proximal attachment
The origin of the muscle
Distal attachment (Insertion)

5

What is the origin of the muscle called?

Proximal attachment

6

What is insertion / distal attachment?

The tendon at the end of the muscle

7

What is the end of muscle called?

Distal attachment / insertion

8

Describe the tendon structure

- 2 regions of skeletal muscle inserting to tendon
- Have poor blood supply

9

Tendons attach to bone by ______

The fibres either intermingling with the fibres of Periosteum or inserting directly into the bone

10

Different skeletal muscle function groups

Flexors / Extensor
Adductor / Abductor
Elevator / Depressor
Rotator

11

For leg, what is the flexors / extensors?
For arm, ======

Leg flexors hamstring / extensors quadriceps
Arm flexors biceps / extensors triceps

12

What is the muscle cells called?

Muscle fibre

13

A bundle of muscle fibre called?

Fasciculi

14

What is the connective tissue coated muscle fibre?

Endomysium

15

What is the connective tissue that coat the fasciculi?

Perimysium

16

What is the connective tissue that coated the whole muscle? And function?

Epimysium, protect muscle from friction against bone and other muscle

17

Large tissue group has a connective tissue covering membrane?

Collagen - fibrous protein

18

Muscle needs a good supply of ______

Blood & nerves, for O2 and sending signal for movement

19

The flattened end of a motor neuron that transmits signals to a muscle called________

motor end- plate

20

Skeletal muscle is made up of numerous of ________ cell called________

precursor , myoblasts

21

Each muscle fibre is long, straight, un-branched cell with several __________

flattened nuclei

22

The nuclei of the muscle cells called _______

Sacrolemma

23

What is myofibril?

- A bundle of protein fibres found in the muscle cells
- Bundles of filament that run the length of the cell and are attached to the cell membrane at the end

24

What is sacromere?

A muscle contractile unit

25

When muscle contracts, several sacromere ________ & ________

shorten & overlap

26

Describe A band

In the centre of sacromere, contain mainly thick filament and some overlap with thin filament

27

Describe I band

Either side of A band, contain thick filament and contain Z disks

28

Describe Z disks

At the either end, and down the middle of I band, delineate (define) the sacromere

29

Describe Bare (H) Zone

In the centre of A band, contains only thick filaments and no overlap with thin filament

30

Describe M line

In the centre of bare (H) zone, links the centre parts of thick filament together

31

What is use as an anchor for thick filament ? Anchors to which zone?

Titin, anchors to Z disks

32

Thick filaments contain _______

myosin

33

Thick filament length always _____________, but the degree of ________ changed by cells _______ to contract

always stay the same , overlap , sliding

34

Thin filament contain_________

tropomysin, troponin, actin

35

myofibrils anchor to cell membrane by ___________

some other protein

36

thin filament anchors to _______ by _______

Z disks by some other protein

37

Where is myosin found?

thick filament

38

myosin has __ __________ chains

6 polypeptide: 1 pair of heavy chains with mainly a helix structure; 2 pairs of light chain with globular structure

39

Function of myosin

bind to the sites along the actin proteins of thin filament

40

what is actin?

A globular protein with binding sites for myosin . It's polymerised into a 2 strand a helix

41

what is tropomysin?

a filamentous protein that runs along the
groove of the actin helix, blocking the myosin binding sites

42

what is troponin?

A complex 3 globular protein (I/C/T) which regulate the blocking action of tropomyosin

43

What is myoglobin?

A red pigment that act as the intracellular oxygen storage molecule