Flashcards in Muscle Deck (43):
a multicellular unit
Types of Muscle
Skeletal Muscle (Voluntary) - Produce movement
Smooth Muscle (Involuntary) - Found in walls of GI tract, uterus, bladder, arteries and veins, various duct
Cardiac Muscle (Heart)
Describe how does muscle enable movement
- Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by tendon
- Movement is produced when muscle contracted and hence bending the skeleton at joints
The connecting tendon closest to the head/ body is called ___________. It is also _________. The other end called__________
The origin of the muscle
Distal attachment (Insertion)
What is the origin of the muscle called?
What is insertion / distal attachment?
The tendon at the end of the muscle
What is the end of muscle called?
Distal attachment / insertion
Describe the tendon structure
- 2 regions of skeletal muscle inserting to tendon
- Have poor blood supply
Tendons attach to bone by ______
The fibres either intermingling with the fibres of Periosteum or inserting directly into the bone
Different skeletal muscle function groups
Flexors / Extensor
Adductor / Abductor
Elevator / Depressor
For leg, what is the flexors / extensors?
For arm, ======
Leg flexors hamstring / extensors quadriceps
Arm flexors biceps / extensors triceps
What is the muscle cells called?
A bundle of muscle fibre called?
What is the connective tissue coated muscle fibre?
What is the connective tissue that coat the fasciculi?
What is the connective tissue that coated the whole muscle? And function?
Epimysium, protect muscle from friction against bone and other muscle
Large tissue group has a connective tissue covering membrane?
Collagen - fibrous protein
Muscle needs a good supply of ______
Blood & nerves, for O2 and sending signal for movement
The flattened end of a motor neuron that transmits signals to a muscle called________
motor end- plate
Skeletal muscle is made up of numerous of ________ cell called________
precursor , myoblasts
Each muscle fibre is long, straight, un-branched cell with several __________
The nuclei of the muscle cells called _______
What is myofibril?
- A bundle of protein fibres found in the muscle cells
- Bundles of filament that run the length of the cell and are attached to the cell membrane at the end
What is sacromere?
A muscle contractile unit
When muscle contracts, several sacromere ________ & ________
shorten & overlap
Describe A band
In the centre of sacromere, contain mainly thick filament and some overlap with thin filament
Describe I band
Either side of A band, contain thick filament and contain Z disks
Describe Z disks
At the either end, and down the middle of I band, delineate (define) the sacromere
Describe Bare (H) Zone
In the centre of A band, contains only thick filaments and no overlap with thin filament
Describe M line
In the centre of bare (H) zone, links the centre parts of thick filament together
What is use as an anchor for thick filament ? Anchors to which zone?
Titin, anchors to Z disks
Thick filaments contain _______
Thick filament length always _____________, but the degree of ________ changed by cells _______ to contract
always stay the same , overlap , sliding
Thin filament contain_________
tropomysin, troponin, actin
myofibrils anchor to cell membrane by ___________
some other protein
thin filament anchors to _______ by _______
Z disks by some other protein
Where is myosin found?
myosin has __ __________ chains
6 polypeptide: 1 pair of heavy chains with mainly a helix structure; 2 pairs of light chain with globular structure
Function of myosin
bind to the sites along the actin proteins of thin filament
what is actin?
A globular protein with binding sites for myosin . It's polymerised into a 2 strand a helix
what is tropomysin?
a filamentous protein that runs along the
groove of the actin helix, blocking the myosin binding sites
what is troponin?
A complex 3 globular protein (I/C/T) which regulate the blocking action of tropomyosin