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Flashcards in Reproduction system Deck (74):
1

What does the reproductive system involves?

Production, storage, nourishment and release of gametes

2

What is gametes?

Haploid, specialised sex cells

3

What is the process that produce female and male gametes?

Gametogenesis

4

what is gonads?

Sexual organs that produce and store gametes

5

What is the female gametes? What is the male gametes?

Ova & Spermatozoa

6

What is the female gonads? What is the male gonads?

Ovary & Testis

7

What is fertilization?

A process of gametes being released from the gonads to enable fusion of the spermatozoon with the ovum.
This results in the formation of a zygote, which can then develop into an embryo

8

What is zygote?

Diploid, fusion of spermatozoon and ovum
Will develop into an embryo

9

What is embryo?

A developed embryo

10

The gonads also work as ________ ______

Endocrine glands

11

What is testis

Male gonad, site of spermatozoa production

12

Where is the site of spermatozoa maturation

Epididymis

13

What does scrotum do?

Suspend the testis (decrease the temp)

14

What is the carriage from epididymis to urethra?

vans deferens (ductus deferens)

15

What contributes to produce seminal fluid?

prostate glands, Cowper's glands, seminal vesicles

16

What is penis's role?

carriage out of the body

17

In the testis, spermatozoa are generated in the ________ _____

seminiferous tubules

18

Spermatozoa are matured in _______ prior to _________

epididymis, ejaculation

19

Seminiferous tubules contain spermatozoa at different development stages T/F

True

20

The development of spermatozoa is called___________

Spermatogenesis

21

Spermatogenesis starts at _______, take ___ days to complete the process

Puberty, ~ 70 days

22

The average male produce ______ sperm per day

at least 150 million

23

Sperm is _____ times smaller than eggs

100 times
sperm is 0.04 mm long, 0.004mm wide

24

Name the ___ steps in spermatogenesis

[spermatogenesis] Type A spermatogonia (2N) (mitosis)
> Type B spermatogonia (2N)
> Primary spermatocytes (2N) (meiosis I)
> Secondary spermatocytes (1N) (meiosis I)
> Spermatides (early & late) (1N) (meiosis II)
> [Spermiogenesis] > Spermatozoa (1N)

25

Which cells provide nourishment to spermatozoa?

Sertoli cell

26

Name different parts of a mature spermatozoon

Head - [Head]
Neck -
Middle piece >
Principle piece > [Tail]
End piece >

27

Describe Spermatozoon structure

Head - nucleus (Haploid) / acrosome
Middle section - long central filament/ many mitochondria
Tail - long central filament/ motile

28

Draw and name the male urinogenital system

scrotum/ epididymis/ vans deferous (ductus deferous)/ Cowman's glands/seminal vesicle/prostate gland/ penis/ testis

29

Draw and name the female urinogenital system

Fallopian tube/ board ligament/ vagina/ vulva/ uterine corpus / uterine cervix / ovary / uterus

30

Function of Uterine cervix

Selective protective barrier

31

Function of uterus

implantation & gestation

32

Which part of the female urinogenital system responsible for hormone product ? What other role it is responsible for?

Ovary, ovum production

33

Function of fallopian tube

transport and fertilisation

34

Name different regions of the fallopian tube

Fimbria/ infundibulum / Ampulla/ Isthmus/ Interstitial part

35

What is oogenesis?

The production of ova

36

Describe the development of oogenesis

~ The germinal epithelium outside the ovaries contain primordial germ cells, OOGONIA, in utero.
~ Some of the oogonia move deep into the ovary and develop into primary oocytes
~ Primary oocytes surrounded by follicle cells to become the primordial follicles ( ~400,000) but there's no further development before puberty
~ (the 1st stage of meiosis is halted)

37

What is the 2nd step of spermatogensis?
Diploid / Haploid?

Type B spermatogonia (Diploid)

38

What is primary oocytes?

The primordial germ cells (oogonia) moved into the ovary

39

what is oogonia ? What will it developed to?

The primordial germ cells produced by the germinal cells on the ovary.
They move deep into ovary and become primary oocytes

40

What is primordial follicle?
What stage is it at?

A primary oocyte surrounded by follicle cells.
Before puberty (1st stage of meiosis is halted)

41

Describe stages of oogenesis

Before Birth -
Oogonium (2N) > (mitosis) > many oogonia (2N) > primary oocyte (2N) (1st stage of meiosis I suspended)
After Birth -
(Re-start meiosis I) Secondary oocyte (1N) (and first polar body (1N)) > Ovulation of secondary oocyte > * If fertilisation occur, with sperm, meiosis II of secondary oocyte completed and develop into ovum and second polar body
* Meiosis II of first polar body may or may not occur

42

What happen to the polar bodies?

They will degenerate

43

Describe menstrual cycle

Multiple primordial follicles are recruited during the menstrual cycle. BUT only one reach maturity by developing and expanding into primary follicles and then into secondary follicles

44

What is the follicle called with meiosis I is completed and ready to go into meiosis II?

Graafian follicle

45

When is meiosis I completed?
What does it form?

Just before ovulation, matured primary oocyte are completed meiosis I and divided into 2 haploid: first polar body and secondary oocyte

46

What happen in ovulation?

The ovum (secondary oocyte surrounded by several layer of cells) is being released from the ovarian surface

47

Second meiotic division of the second oocyte doesn't take place unless....

The ovum is penetrated by a spermatozoon

48

What is a corpus luteum ?

Structure formed by ruptured follicles filled with blood after the ovulation

49

The corpus luteum breaks down and formed _______

corpus albicans

50

The endocrine regulation of the ovaries, uterus, testes are affected by __________

Hypothalamus and pituitary gland

51

How does the hypothalamus gland regulate the male gonad?

produce gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) > act on the anterior pituitary gland > cause the production and releasing of Luteinising hormone (LH), follicles- stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin

52

How does Luteinising Hormone affect male gonad?

It stimulates the Leydig cells to produce testosterone

53

How does follicle- stimulating hormone affect male gonad?

It makes sertoli cells respond to the testosterone

54

How does prolactin affect male gonad?

Stimulates the Leydig cells and add the effects of LH. It also increase the uptake of testosterone by prostate (needed to maintain prostatic secretion)

55

How does the hypothalamus gland regulate the female gonad?

produce gonadotropin releasing hormone > act on the anterior pituitary gland > to produce and release the Luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH)

56

How does follicle- stimulating hormone affect female gonad?

Stimulate the maturation of the primordial follicles so they can produce oestrogen

57

How does oestrogen affect female gonad?

When oestrogen level peaks, it feedback and stimulate a surge of Luteinising hormone secretion.

58

How does Luteinising hormone affect female gonad?

Stimulate the follicle cells to synthesis progesterone > follicle ruptures and the ovum is released (viable for 12- 24 hrs)

59

Corpus luteum produces ______ & _________ (Hormones)

Oestrogen & posgesterone

60

Describe the passage of spermatozoon from testis to oviduct

Spermatozoa is released from epididymus
> Chemical changes activates sperm to become motile
> Muscular activity in tube walls move them into vas deferens
> Seminal fluid is added to form semen
> Alkaline seminal fluid protect sperm from the acidic environment of vagina
> Spermatozoa move to the oviduct
> Undergo capacitation in order to fertilise the ovum, which involve the loss of glycoprotein from the spermatozoa surface and changes in motility

61

Describe the movement of spermatozoa in female urinogenital system

Vagina > cervix > uterus> oviduct

62

Fertilisation enables .....

~ Restoration of the DIPLOID number of chromosomes reduced during meiosis
~ Transmission of genes from both parents to offspring

63

When spermatozoon encounters an ovum, it must undergo which process ?

Acrosome reaction

64

What is capacitation?

Spermatozoa lose their glycoprotein from the spermatozoa surfaces and change in motility, in order to fertilise with the ovum

65

What is Acrosome reaction?

The acrosome swelling, caused by the glycoprotein on the surface of the ovum

66

How does the "leaky" acrosome acts on the ovum?

It releases hyaluronidase and acts on the hyaluronic acid, which holds together the cell coating of the secondary oocytes

67

What is hyaluronic acid?
Need to break down by ?

It holds the cell coating of the secondary oocytes.
Hyaluronidase that released by the spermatozoa acrosome

68

Describe the process when a spermatozoon encounter an ovum

Spermatozoon releases hyaluronidase to act on the hyaluronic acid on the coating of oocyte
> the head can penetrate the oocyte
> the tails crease to move and remains outside
> the head of spermatozoon fuse with the oocyte and produce the diploid zygote

69

What happen after spermatozoon fuse with the oocyte ?

Zygote is produced and move along the fallopian tube to uterus
> Several additional development stages occurs during the journey, such as cleavage within the conceptus, ~ 16 cells
> Then implantation take place ~ 10 days after the ovulation and the placenta begins to form
> (Embryo is embedded until 8 weeks)

70

Roles of placenta

~ provide nutrition
~ gas exchanges
~ waste removal
~ Endocrine and immune support for the foetus
~ Produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

71

Stages of pregnancy

1st trimester
- organ formation of organs and limb buds
- sex is determined

2nd trimester
- bony parts of skeleton begins to form (as cartilage)
- foetal movements can be felt by the mother

3rd trimester
Circulatory and respiratory systems mature in preparation of breathing

72

What happen during parturition?

- During parturition, the cervix dilates to allow passage for foetus
- Uterine contractions propel the foetus through the birth canal

73

Which glands will release which hormones to be involved in parturition?

Oxytocin - posterior pituitary gland
Prostaglandins - uterus

74

Stages of parturition

1st stage
- onset of regular painful contraction
- cervix becomes fully dilated

2nd stage
- Time between full dilation and delivery of foetus

3rd stage
- Delivery of placenta