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Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (65):
1

Name the organs/ structure of the respiratory system

Nasal cavity / trachea / pharynx / L & R Bronchi / Bronchus (R x 3 & L x 2) / Brochioles / Alveoli / Alveolar sac / (Diaphragm, Ribs)

2

How many parts does the lung have?

5: Right superior lobe, Right middle lobe, Right inferior lobe, Left superior lobe, Left inferior lobe

3

Lungs contain how many alveoli? They are surrounded by _________

millions
A network of capillaries

4

________ is taken up from the alveoli into _________; _________ is released into the alveoli from ________

O2 , blood ; CO2 , blood

5

Lungs are situated in ________, protected by _______

Thorax , ribs

6

Air is brought into lungs and ______ into ______ molecules

break down , small

7

What cells found at the nasal cavity?
The overall functions?

Epithelial goblet cells & mucus glands - produce mucus to trap foreign particules

Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium - Cilia trap and push out the particles

Epithelium secretion

Clearance of inhaled particles

8

What prevents the collapse of the trachea, but flexible to allow ___________ during respiration

Rigid cartilage rings

Expanding and extension

9

What is attached to the end of the C- Shape cartilage rings?

Trachealis muscle

10

What muscles can be found around the trachea?

Trachealis muscles and some amount of longitudinal muscle

11

What cells can be found at the primary bronchus

Epithelial goblet cells & submucosal cells
But found fewer than in trachea

12

What happen if the mucus is too much or too much at the primary bronchus?

Allergic reaction

13

What controls the internal diameter of the bronchioles?

Smooth muscle controls the internal diameter

14

Submucosal glands can be found in bronchiole T/F

False. There's no cartilage or submucosal glands in bronchioles

15

Different regions of bronchioles

Bronchioles has a part called Terminal bronchioles that branched to form Respiratory bronchiole, which branched to form Alveolar duct which ends with several Alveolus.

16

Where is the ONLY gas exchanging site?

Alveoli

17

What cells are found in the terminal bronchioles?

Epithelial cuboidal ciliated cells & Epithelial cuboidal non- ciliated Clara cells

18

How does alveolus ensure the efficient gas exchange?

The large amount of them give large surface area and the network of capillaries around each of them and the thin- walled structure

19

The alveoli is lined with ________ tissue.
Is there any secretion in the alveoli?

Specialised tissue. The mucus secretion by epithelial tissues stick to impurity or bacteria

20

Movements of ______ are involved for breathing?

Ribs & Diaphragm

21

The diaphragm is shaped like ______

Parachute

22

Breathing activities are controlled by ______ ? and how it affects the volume of thorax?

muscles > the volume of thorax is rhythmically increased and decreased

23

Describe what happen during inhalation

- The diaphragm contracts and flattens downwards
- The ribs are pulled up and outwards by the contraction of the external intercostal muscles
- Therefore the volume of the thoracic cavity is increased
- intrathoracic pressure is lower than outside, airs enter the lungs and they expand

24

Described what happen during exhalation

- The diaphragm is relaxed an push back up
- The ribs are lowered and inwards by the
relaxation of external intercostal muscles
- Therefore the volume of the thoracic cavity is decreased
- intrathoracic pressure is higher than ouside, airs leave the lungs

25

What controls the speed and depth of breathing?

the respiratory centre in the brain

26

What factors may affects the speed and depth of breathing?

Blood pH (CO2 in the blood)
Body Temperature

27

What may affects the blood pH

Increase of activities > increase CO2 in the blood > lower blood pH

28

What is the respiratory centre is sensitive to?

The acidity of blood flows through it (low blood pH)

29

How would the respiratory system response to low blood pH?

Faster and deeper breathing to get more O2 to eliminate the high amount of CO2 and raise the blood pH to normal

30

What is oxygen debt?

- It occurs when exercising has use up more oxygen than can be provided by respiration
- The intense exercise use up stores for
energy such as ATP
- Anaerobic respiration occurs, lactic acid is produced and builds up

31

How can oxygen debt be repaid?

Continue rapid and deep breathing

32

Different measurement of breathing

- Tidal volume
- Death space / Residual Volume
- Vital capacity
- Forced expiratory volume (FEV)

33

What is Tidal Volume ?

The volume of air exchanged with the atmosphere at each breathing cycle

34

What is Vital capacity ?

The volume of air breathe out after breathing in to the full extent

35

What is Forced expiratory volume?

The volume of air exhaled with force in one breathe, can be measured in 1, 2, 3 secs as (FEV1, FEV2, FEV 3)

36

What is Residual Volume?

The remaining air after breathing out to the full extend, mainly in the bronchus and bronchioles

37

Different lung function tests

- Gas Diffusion test
- Arterial Blood Gases

38

Why carry out the lung function tests?

- To determine the cause of breathing problems
- To monitor the effectiveness of lung disease treatments
- To diagnose certain lung disease, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Pre- test for surgery
- To monitor someone who has been exposed to harmful substance such as asbestos

39

What is gas diffusion test?

Measuring the amount of different gases across the alveoli per min to evaluate how well gases are being absorbed into blood from lungs

40

What is arterial blood gases?

Determine the amount of O2 and CO2 in blood

41

O2 moves from _______ to the_____ and from there it is transported to the_______

CO2 is transported from _____ in the_____to the______ and to the ____________

alveolar air > blood > tissues


tissues > blood (lungs) > alveolar air

42

CO2 moves______ the alveolus & O2 moves _____ the alveolus

into ; out

43

Air pressure gradients- more CO2 in ____ & more O2 in _______

blood ; alveolar air

44

Gas exchange is based on _____________

the O2 and CO2 concentration gradient and passive diffusion

45

The O2 and CO2 concentration is never even out so the gas exchange is constant. T/F

True

46

The concentrations of O2 and CO2 in alveoli stay relatively constant, but vary in the bloodstream T/F

True

47

Oxygen in the blood is transported mainly by ______

haemoglobin

48

A haemoglobin molecule can carry how many oxygen molecules ?

4 x O2 molecules > 100% saturation

49

Haemoglobin is an _________ protein

allosteric

50

When haemoglobin is not carrying O2, it becomes_______

tense

51

Haemoglobin structure changes when it’s _________ Once it picks up the 1st O2, it can ____________as it is more relaxed.

saturated , pick up more O2 easily

52

The haemoglobin 2 a protein chains and 2 b protein chains made up ________that contain ________so they can each hold _________. Fe can bind with O2

4 haem groups
N & H
a Fe atom
reversibly

53

What is Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures?

pressure exerted by any gas in a mixture of gases is proportional to the percentage of that gas in the mixture

54

Oxygen attaches to haemoglobin and becomes _________

Oxyhaemoglobin

55

Haemoglobin in the ________takes up oxygen and becomes 100% saturated.O2 transport from ______ to _______

alveolar capillaries , blood > tissues

56

in the alveoli, pO2 is _____ ; in the tissue pO2 is ________

high , lower

57

Haemoglobin gives up some O2 to the tissue and becomes______saturated

75%

58

The extra oxygen still carried by haemoglobin is called ____________

oxygen reserve

59

O2 can be given up quickly to ______% if needed. This may due to __________

50 – 25%
stress, disease or injury

60

What factors may affect haemoglobin saturation and need more O2?

- Low blood pH, may due to exercise and CO2 built up
- High body temperature and tissues are stressed

61

carbon dioxide in the blood is transported mainly as __________

HCO3-

62

CO2 leaves cells within tissues and diffuses through the _____ into the __________

interstitial fluid , capillaries

63

When CO2 leaves cells into the capillaries, it can __________

- Dissolve in the plasma
- Bind with haemoglobin within RBCs to form carboxyhaemoglobin
- Converted within RBCs into bicarbonate (HCO3-)

64

When CO2 leaves cells into the capillaries, What is use to convert CO2 into HCO3- and how?

Carbonic anhydrase (an enzyme)
CO2+ H2O > H2CO3 (+ Cl-)> HCO3- + H+ > HCO3-

65

How does CO2 transport from blood to alveolar air?

- HCO3- re-enters the RBC it combines back with H+ to form carbonic acid (H2 CO3) and lose a Cl-
- Carbonic anhydrase dissociates H2CO3 to form H2O and CO2, which CO2 diffuses across the capillary & alveolar walls