Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (65):
Name the organs/ structure of the respiratory system
Nasal cavity / trachea / pharynx / L & R Bronchi / Bronchus (R x 3 & L x 2) / Brochioles / Alveoli / Alveolar sac / (Diaphragm, Ribs)
How many parts does the lung have?
5: Right superior lobe, Right middle lobe, Right inferior lobe, Left superior lobe, Left inferior lobe
Lungs contain how many alveoli? They are surrounded by _________
A network of capillaries
________ is taken up from the alveoli into _________; _________ is released into the alveoli from ________
O2 , blood ; CO2 , blood
Lungs are situated in ________, protected by _______
Thorax , ribs
Air is brought into lungs and ______ into ______ molecules
break down , small
What cells found at the nasal cavity?
The overall functions?
Epithelial goblet cells & mucus glands - produce mucus to trap foreign particules
Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium - Cilia trap and push out the particles
Clearance of inhaled particles
What prevents the collapse of the trachea, but flexible to allow ___________ during respiration
Rigid cartilage rings
Expanding and extension
What is attached to the end of the C- Shape cartilage rings?
What muscles can be found around the trachea?
Trachealis muscles and some amount of longitudinal muscle
What cells can be found at the primary bronchus
Epithelial goblet cells & submucosal cells
But found fewer than in trachea
What happen if the mucus is too much or too much at the primary bronchus?
What controls the internal diameter of the bronchioles?
Smooth muscle controls the internal diameter
Submucosal glands can be found in bronchiole T/F
False. There's no cartilage or submucosal glands in bronchioles
Different regions of bronchioles
Bronchioles has a part called Terminal bronchioles that branched to form Respiratory bronchiole, which branched to form Alveolar duct which ends with several Alveolus.
Where is the ONLY gas exchanging site?
What cells are found in the terminal bronchioles?
Epithelial cuboidal ciliated cells & Epithelial cuboidal non- ciliated Clara cells
How does alveolus ensure the efficient gas exchange?
The large amount of them give large surface area and the network of capillaries around each of them and the thin- walled structure
The alveoli is lined with ________ tissue.
Is there any secretion in the alveoli?
Specialised tissue. The mucus secretion by epithelial tissues stick to impurity or bacteria
Movements of ______ are involved for breathing?
Ribs & Diaphragm
The diaphragm is shaped like ______
Breathing activities are controlled by ______ ? and how it affects the volume of thorax?
muscles > the volume of thorax is rhythmically increased and decreased
Describe what happen during inhalation
- The diaphragm contracts and flattens downwards
- The ribs are pulled up and outwards by the contraction of the external intercostal muscles
- Therefore the volume of the thoracic cavity is increased
- intrathoracic pressure is lower than outside, airs enter the lungs and they expand
Described what happen during exhalation
- The diaphragm is relaxed an push back up
- The ribs are lowered and inwards by the
relaxation of external intercostal muscles
- Therefore the volume of the thoracic cavity is decreased
- intrathoracic pressure is higher than ouside, airs leave the lungs
What controls the speed and depth of breathing?
the respiratory centre in the brain
What factors may affects the speed and depth of breathing?
Blood pH (CO2 in the blood)
What may affects the blood pH
Increase of activities > increase CO2 in the blood > lower blood pH
What is the respiratory centre is sensitive to?
The acidity of blood flows through it (low blood pH)
How would the respiratory system response to low blood pH?
Faster and deeper breathing to get more O2 to eliminate the high amount of CO2 and raise the blood pH to normal
What is oxygen debt?
- It occurs when exercising has use up more oxygen than can be provided by respiration
- The intense exercise use up stores for
energy such as ATP
- Anaerobic respiration occurs, lactic acid is produced and builds up
How can oxygen debt be repaid?
Continue rapid and deep breathing
Different measurement of breathing
- Tidal volume
- Death space / Residual Volume
- Vital capacity
- Forced expiratory volume (FEV)
What is Tidal Volume ?
The volume of air exchanged with the atmosphere at each breathing cycle
What is Vital capacity ?
The volume of air breathe out after breathing in to the full extent
What is Forced expiratory volume?
The volume of air exhaled with force in one breathe, can be measured in 1, 2, 3 secs as (FEV1, FEV2, FEV 3)
What is Residual Volume?
The remaining air after breathing out to the full extend, mainly in the bronchus and bronchioles
Different lung function tests
- Gas Diffusion test
- Arterial Blood Gases
Why carry out the lung function tests?
- To determine the cause of breathing problems
- To monitor the effectiveness of lung disease treatments
- To diagnose certain lung disease, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Pre- test for surgery
- To monitor someone who has been exposed to harmful substance such as asbestos
What is gas diffusion test?
Measuring the amount of different gases across the alveoli per min to evaluate how well gases are being absorbed into blood from lungs
What is arterial blood gases?
Determine the amount of O2 and CO2 in blood
O2 moves from _______ to the_____ and from there it is transported to the_______
CO2 is transported from _____ in the_____to the______ and to the ____________
alveolar air > blood > tissues
tissues > blood (lungs) > alveolar air
CO2 moves______ the alveolus & O2 moves _____ the alveolus
into ; out
Air pressure gradients- more CO2 in ____ & more O2 in _______
blood ; alveolar air
Gas exchange is based on _____________
the O2 and CO2 concentration gradient and passive diffusion
The O2 and CO2 concentration is never even out so the gas exchange is constant. T/F
The concentrations of O2 and CO2 in alveoli stay relatively constant, but vary in the bloodstream T/F
Oxygen in the blood is transported mainly by ______
A haemoglobin molecule can carry how many oxygen molecules ?
4 x O2 molecules > 100% saturation
Haemoglobin is an _________ protein
When haemoglobin is not carrying O2, it becomes_______
Haemoglobin structure changes when it’s _________ Once it picks up the 1st O2, it can ____________as it is more relaxed.
saturated , pick up more O2 easily
The haemoglobin 2 a protein chains and 2 b protein chains made up ________that contain ________so they can each hold _________. Fe can bind with O2
4 haem groups
N & H
a Fe atom
What is Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures?
pressure exerted by any gas in a mixture of gases is proportional to the percentage of that gas in the mixture
Oxygen attaches to haemoglobin and becomes _________
Haemoglobin in the ________takes up oxygen and becomes 100% saturated.O2 transport from ______ to _______
alveolar capillaries , blood > tissues
in the alveoli, pO2 is _____ ; in the tissue pO2 is ________
high , lower
Haemoglobin gives up some O2 to the tissue and becomes______saturated
The extra oxygen still carried by haemoglobin is called ____________
O2 can be given up quickly to ______% if needed. This may due to __________
50 – 25%
stress, disease or injury
What factors may affect haemoglobin saturation and need more O2?
- Low blood pH, may due to exercise and CO2 built up
- High body temperature and tissues are stressed
carbon dioxide in the blood is transported mainly as __________
CO2 leaves cells within tissues and diffuses through the _____ into the __________
interstitial fluid , capillaries
When CO2 leaves cells into the capillaries, it can __________
- Dissolve in the plasma
- Bind with haemoglobin within RBCs to form carboxyhaemoglobin
- Converted within RBCs into bicarbonate (HCO3-)
When CO2 leaves cells into the capillaries, What is use to convert CO2 into HCO3- and how?
Carbonic anhydrase (an enzyme)
CO2+ H2O > H2CO3 (+ Cl-)> HCO3- + H+ > HCO3-