Muscles of the Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist and Hand Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Muscles of the Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist and Hand Deck (44)
1

Deltoid

All fibers: abduct shoulder

Anterior fibers: flex, IR and horizontally adduct the shoulder

Posterior fibers: extend, ER, and horizontally abduct the shoulder

O: lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula
I: deltoid tuberosity

Axillary Nerve
C5, 6

2

Trapezius

Upper fibers:
-Bilaterally extend head and neck
-Unilaterally: laterally flex to the SAME side, rotate to the OPPOSITE side, elevate and upwardly rotate the scapula

Middle Fibers: adduct and stabilize the scapula

Lower Fibers: depress and upwardly rotate the scapula

O: external occipital protuberance, medial portion of superior nuchal line of the occiput, ligaments niche and SP of C7-T12
I: lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula

Spinal portion of CN XI (accessory) and ventral ramus C2-4

3

Latissimus Dorsi

Extends, IR and adducts the shoulder

O: inferior angle of scapula, SP of T6-12, ribs 8-12, thoracolumbar aponeurosis and posterior iliac crest
I: Intertuberuclar groove of the humerus

Thoracodorsal Nerve
C6-8

4

Teres Major

Extends, adducts and IR the shoulder

O: inferior angle and lower 1/3 of lateral border of scapula
I: crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus

Lower sub scapular nerve
C5-7

5

Supraspinatus

Abducts the shoulder
Stabilizes the humeral head in the glenoid cavity

O: supraspinatus fossa of the scapula
I: Greater tubercle

Suprascapular Nerve
C5-6

6

Infraspinatus

ER and abducts the shoulder
Stabilizes the humeral head

O: Infraspinatus fossa
I: greater tubercle

Suprascapular Nerve
C5-6

7

Teres Minor

ER and adduct the shoulder
Stabilizes the humeral head

O: upper 2/3 of lateral border of scapula
I: greater tubercle

Axillary Nerve
C5-6

8

Subscapularis

IR shoulder

O: subscapular fossa
I: lesser tubercle

Upper and lower sub scapular nerve
C5-6

9

Rhomboids

Adduct, elevate and downwardly rotate the scapula

Major O:SP T2-5
Major I: medial border of the scapula between scapula spine and inferior angle

Minor O: SP of C7-T1
Minor I: upper portion of the medial border of the scapula, across from spine of scapula

Dorsal scapular nerve
C4-5

10

Levator scapula

Bilaterally: extends the neck
Unilaterally: laterally flexes neck and rotates to the same side; elevates and downwardly rotates scapula

O: TP of C1-4
I: medial border of scapula between superior angle and superior portion of spine of scapula

C3,4 and Dorsal scapular nerve
C3-4

11

Serratus Anterior

With the origin fixed:
Abducts, upwardly rotates and depresses the scapula
Holds medial border of scapula against rib cage

With the scapula fixed: may act to elevate the thorax during forced inhalation

O: external surfaces of ribs 1-9
I: anterior surface of medial border of scapula

Long thoracic nerve
C5-7

12

Pectoralis Major

All fibers: adduct and IR the shoulder; assist to elevate the thorax during forced inhalation (with the arm fixed)

Upper fibers (clavicular portion): flex and horizontally adduct the shoulder

Lower fibers (sternocostal portion): extend the shoulder

Clavicular portion O: medial half of clavicle, Sternocostal portion O: sternum and cartilage of ribs 1-6
I: crest of greater tubercle

Upper fibers: lateral pectoral nerve C5-7
Lower fibers: lateral and medial pectoral nerve C6-T1

13

Pectoralis Minor

Scapular depression, protraction and downward rotation

With the scapula fixed, assists to elevate the thorax during forced inhalation

O: ribs 3-5
I: Medial surface of coracoid process of the scapula

Medial pectoral nerve C8-T1

14

Biceps Brachii

Shoulder flexion
Elbow flexion
Supination

Long head O: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula (tendon passes through the inter tubercular groove of the humerus)

Short head O: coracoid process of scapula

I: Radial tuberosity and aponeurosis of the biceps

Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, 6)

15

Triceps

All: extend the elbow (humeroulnar joint)

Long head: extends and adducts the shoulder

Long head O: infraglenoid tubercle

Lateral head O: posterior surface of proximal half of the humerus

Medial head O: posterior surface of distal half of the humerus

I: olecranon process of the ulna

Radial nerve C6-T1

16

Coracobrachialis

"armpit muscle"; deep to the pec major and ant deltoid and lies anterior to the axillary artery and brachial plexus

secondary flexor and adductor of the shoulder

O: coracoid process of the scapula

I: medial surface of mid humeral shaft

Musculocutaneous nerve C6-7

17

Brachialis

strong elbow flexor
lies deep to biceps brachii

O: distal half of anterior surface of humerus
I: ulnar tuberosity and coronoid process

Musculocutaneous C5-7

18

Brachioradialis

Flexes the elbow
Assists to pronate and supinate the forearm when these movements are resisted

O: proximal 2/3 of the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus
I: styloid process of the radius

Radial nerve C5-6

19

Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

Extend and abduct the wrist
Assist to flex the elbow

Longus
O: distal 1/3 of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
I: base of 2nd metacarpal
Radial nerve C6-7

Brevis
O: common extensor tendon from the lateral epicondyle of humerus
I: base of 3rd metacarpal
Posterior interposes off radial nerve C7-8

20

Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extends and adducts the wrist

O: common extensor tendon from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus

I: base of 5th metacarpal

Posterior interosseus off the Radial nerve C7-8

21

Extensor digitorum

extends fingers 2-5 (MCP and IP joints)
Assists to extend the wrist

O: common extensor tendon from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus

I: bases of middle and distal phalanges of fingers 2-5

Posterior interosseus (radial) C7-8

22

Anconeus

weak elbow extensor

O: lateral epicondyle of humerus

I: olecranon process and posterior, proximal surface of ulna

Radial nerve C7-T1

23

Extensor Indicis

Extends and adducts the 2nd finger
May assist with wrist extension

O: posterior surface of distal shaft of ulna and interosseous membrane
I: tendon of the extensor digitorum at the level of the 2nd metacarpal

Posterior interossei (radial) C7-8

24

Flexor carpi radialis

Flexes and abducts the wrist
May help to flex the elbow

O: common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle
I: bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals

Median nerve C6-7

25

Palmaris Longus

Tense the palmar fascia
Flex the wrist
May assist to flex the elbow

O: Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle
I: Flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis

Median nerve C6-T1

26

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flex and adduct the wrist
Assist to flex the elbow

Humeral head O: common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle
Ulnar head O: posterior surface of proximal 2/3 ulna

I: pisiform, hook of the hamate and base of 5th metacarpal

Ulnar nerve C7-C8

27

Flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexes fingers 2-5 (MCP and proximal IPs)
Flexes the wrist

O: common flexor tendon, ulnar collateral ligament, coronoid process of ulna, interosseous membrane and proximal shaft of radius

I: sides of middle phaanages of fingers 2-5

Median nerve C7-T1

28

Flexor digitorum profundis

Flexes fingers 2-5 (MCP and DIPs)
Assists to flex the wrist

O: anterior and medial surfaces of proximal 3/4 of ulna

I: bases of distal phalanges, palmar surface of fingers 2-5

Anterior interosseus (median) C8-T1

29

Pronator teres

Pronates the forearm
Assists to flex the elbow

O: common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle and coronoid process of the ulna

I: middle of lateral surface of the radius

Median nerve C6-7

30

Pronator Quadratus

Pronates the forearm

O: medial, anterior surface of distal ulna

I: lateral, anterior surface of distal radius

Anterior interosseous -Median nerve C7-T1

31

Supinator

Supinates the forearm

O: lateral epicondyle, radial collateral ligament, anular ligament and supinator crest of the ulna

I: anterior, lateral surface of proximal 1/3 of radial shaft

Radial nerve C5-6

32

Abductor pollicis longus

Abducts and extends the thumb
Radially deviates the wrist

O: posterior surface of radius and ulna and interosseous membrane

I: base of 1st metacarpal

Posterior interosseous (Radial) nerve C7-8

33

Extensor Pollicis Longus and brevis

Extends the thumb (CMC, MCP and IP)
Abducts the wrist

Longus
O: posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane
I: base of distal phalanx of thumb

Brevis:
O: posterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
I: base of proximal phalanx of thumb

Posterior interosseous (radial) nerve C7-8

34

Flexor pollicis longus

Flex the thumb (CMC, MCP, IP)
Assists to flex the wrist

O: anterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
I: base of distal phalanx of thumb

Anterior interosseous (median) nerve C8-T1

35

Abductor pollicis brevis

abducts the thumb (CMC and MCP)
Assists in opposition

O: flexor retinaculum, trapezium and scaphoid tubercles
I: base of proximal phalanx of thumb

Median nerve C8-T1

36

Flexor pollicis brevis

Flexes the thumb (CMC and MCP)
Assists in opposition

Superficial head O: flexor retinaculum
Deep head O: trapezium, trapezoid and capitate

I: base of proximal phalanx of thumb

Superficial head: median N (C8-T1)
Deep head: ulnar N C8-T1

37

Opponens pollicis

Opposition of the thumb at the CMC

O: flexor retinaculum and tubercle of the trapezium

I: entire length of 1st metacarpal bone, radial surface

Median nerve (C8-T1)

38

Adductor pollicis

Adducts the thumb (CMC and MCP)
Assists to flex the thumb (MCP)

O: capitate, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals

I: base of proximal phalanx of thumb

Ulnar nerve C8-T1

39

Abductor digiti minimi

abduct 5th digit (MCP
Assists in opposition of the 5th finger

O: pisiform and tendon of FCU

I: base of proximal phalanx of 5th finger, ulnar surface

Ulnar nerve C8-T1

40

Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Flexes the 5th finger (MCP)
Assists in opposition of the 5th finger

O: hook of the hamate and flexor retinaculum

I: base of proximal phalanx of 5th finger, palmar surface

Ulnar nerve C8-T1

41

Opponens digiti minimi

Opposition of 5th finger at the CMC

O: hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum

I: shaft of 5th metacarpal, ulnar surface

Ulnar nerve C8-T1

42

Lumbricals of the hand

Flexes fingers 2-5 at MCPs
Extension of proximal and distal IPs

O: surfaces of the FDP tendons
1st- from radial side of index finger (unipennate)
2nd- from radial side of middle finger (unipennate)
3rd- from contiguous sides of middle and ring fingers (bipennate)
4th- from contiguous sides of ring and little fingers (bipennate)

I: extensor aponeurosis on dorsal surface of phalanges (passes on the radial side of each digit and inserts into the distal wing of the extensor expansion)

2nd & 3rd fingers: median N C6-T1
4th & 5th fingers: ulnar N C8-T1

43

Palmar interossei (unipennate)

Adducts fingers 2, 4, 5 towards the 3rd finger

Assists to flex the thumb, 2nd, 4th and 5th fingers at the MCPs

Asssists to extend the thumb, 2nd, 4th and 5th fingers at the IPs

O: base of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th metacarpals

I: base of the proximal phalanx of the related finger and the extensor aponeurosis

Ulnar nerve C8-T1

44

Dorsal interossei (bipennate)

Abducts the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers at the MCPs

Assists to flex 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers at the MCP

Assists to extend the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers at the IP

O: adjacent sides of all metacarpals

I: base of the proximal phalanx of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers and the extensor aponeurosis

Ulnar nerve C8-T1