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Flashcards in Spinal segments and nerves Deck (34)
1

C4

motor- upper trap

movement- shoulder shrug

sensory- upper trap, lower neck

2

C5

motor- deltoid, biceps

movement- shoulder abduction, elbow flexion

reflex- biceps tendon

sensory- deltoid area

3

C6

motor- wrist extension, biceps

movement- wrist extension, elbow flexion

reflex- brachioradialis tendon

sensory- radial border of hand

4

C7

motor- wrist flexors, triceps

movement- wrist flexion, elbow extension

reflex- triceps tendon

sensory- index, middle and ring fingers

5

C8

motor- thenar muscles

movement- thumb extension

sensory- ulnar border of hand

6

T1

motor- interossei

movement- abduction and adduction of fingers

sensory- medial arm

7

L2

motor- iliopsoas

movement- hip flexion

sensory- anterolateral thigh

8

L3

motor- iliopsoas, quadriceps

movement- hip flexion, knee extension

reflex- patellar tendon

sensory- anteromedial and distal thigh

9

L4

motor- tibialis anterior

movement- ankle DF

reflex- patellar tendon

sensory- medial calf and ankle

10

L5

motor- extensor hallucis longus

movement- toe extension

sensory-lateral leg, anterior shin and foot

11

S1

motor- fibularis longus/brevis

movement- PF and eversion

reflex- achilles tendon

sensory- lateral ankle and foot

12

S2

motor- hamstrings

movement- knee flexion

sensory- medial posterior thigh

13

Musculocutaneous nerve

SC segment: C5-6

Muscle innervation: coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis

Sensory distribution (via lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve): anterolateral surface of forearm

Motor features of paralysis: loss of forearm flexion when supinated, weakened supination

14

Axillary nerve

SC segment: C5-6

Muscle innervation: deltoid, teres minor

Sensory distribution (via upper lateral brachial cutaneous nerve): lateral arm over lower portion of deltoid

Motor features of paralysis: loss of shoulder abduction, weakened ER

15

Radial nerve

SC segment: C5-T1

Muscle innervation: Triceps, anconeus, brachioradialis, supinator, and wrist, finger and thumb extensors

Sensory distribution:
-posterior arm via posterior brachial cutaneous nerve and inferior lateral brachial cutaneous
-posterior forearm via posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve
-radial side of posterior hand via superficial branch of radial nerve and dorsal digital branches

Motor features of paralysis: loss of elbow, wrist, finger and thumb extension

16

Median nerve

SC segment: C6-T1

Muscle innervation: pronators, wrist and finger flexors on radial side, most thumb muscles

Sensory distribution: palmar aspects of thumb, 2nd, 3rd and 4th (radial half) fingers

Motor features of paralysis: loss of forearm pronation, thumb opposition, flexion and abduction

17

Ulnar nerve

SC segment: C7-T1

Muscle innervations: FCU, FDP (ulnar half), interossei, 4th and 5th lumbricals

Sensory distribution: 4th finger (ulnar half) and 5th finger

Motor features of paralysis: loss of wrist ulnar deviation, weakened wrist and finger flexion, weakened 4th and 5th flexion, loss of thumb adduction, loss of most intrinsics (claw hand)

18

Sciatic nerve

SC segment: L4-S3

Muscle innervations: hamstrings and adductor magnus

Sensory distributions: through its terminal branches of the tibial, superficial fibular, and deep fibular nerves

Motor features of paralysis: loss of knee flexion, weak hip adduction and loss of all muscle function below the knee

19

Femoral nerve

SC segment: L2-4

Muscle innervations: sartorius, quads, iliaus and pectineus

Sensory distributions: middle anterior thigh and medial thigh proximal to the knee

Motor features of paralysis: loss of hip flexion and knee extension

20

Tibial nerve

SC segment: L4-S3

Muscle innervations: gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, popliteus and tibalis posterior, foot flexors

Sensory distributions: posterior/lateral calf, ankle and heal

Motor features of paralysis: loss of PF and supination

21

Superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve

SC segment: L5-S2

Muscle innervations: peroneus longus and brevis

Sensory distribution: anterior/lateral distal lower leg and ankle and most of the dorsum of the foot

Motor features of paralysis: loss of eversion

22

Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve

SC segment: L4-S2

Muscle innervations: tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius, 1st&2nd dorsal interossei, extensor digitorum brevis, extensor hallucis brevis

Sensory distribution: web space between 1st and 2nd toes on the dorsum of the foot

Motor features of paralysis: loss of DF (drop foot) and weakness in the foot intrinsics

23

CN I

Olfactory

function: smell

Anosmia= loss of sense of smell

24

CN II

Optic

Function: sight, pupillary reflexes

damage: monocular blindness, loss of pupillary constriction, absence of blink reflex

25

CN III

Oculomotor

Function: moves the eye and elevates the upper eyelid

damage:
-ptosis: drooped eyelid
-dilation of pupil
-loss of accommodation of the light reflex

26

CN IV

Trochlear

function: motor nerve for the superior oblique muscle

damage: diplopia, failure to rotate eye up and out

27

CN V

Trigeminal

function: mastication and sensory nerve for the head

damage:
-loss of facial sensation
-weakness of muscles of mastication
-deviation of opened jaw to ipsilateral side

28

CN VI

Abducens

function: abducts the eye via nerve supply to the lateral rectus muscle

damage:
-diplopia
-convergent squint (medial strabismus)
-abductor paralysis of ipsilateral eye

29

CN VII

Facial

function: facial expression, speech articulation, winking, ingestion of food and drink, taste, salivary and nasal secretions

damage
-ipsilateral facial paralysis
-dry mouth
-loss of taste anterior 1/3 of tongue (bell's palsy)

30

CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear

function: maintenance of equilibrium, hearing

damage: vertigo, nystagmus, dysequilibrium, tinnitus, loss of hearing

31

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal

function: elevates pharynx, salivary secretion, taste

damage: slight dysphagia, partial dry mouth, loss of taste posterior 1/3 of tongue

32

CN X

Vagus

function: phonation, visceral sensations and reflexes, cardiac depressor, bronchoconstrictor, GI tract peristalsis and secretion

damage:
-palpitation (forcible pulsation of the heart)
-tachycardia
-vomiting
-slowing of respiration
-ipsilateral paralysis of soft palate and larynx
-hoarseness
-anesthesia of the larynx

33

CN XI

Accessory

Function: deglutition and phonation (carotid part), movements of head and shoulders (spinal part)

Damage: weakness in shrugging ipsilateral shoulder, turning head to opposite side

34

CN XII

Hypoglossal

Function: movements of the tongue

Damage: unilateral paralysis of the tongue, deviation to the ipsilateral side with protrusion