Flashcards in Music EC-12 CD=8.Methods & Tech. for Singing Deck (7)
The example of spiral curriculum concept as suggested by cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner
The choral directors in a 6-12 choral music program expect sixth grade students to accurately count and perform rhythms comprised of eighth, quarter, half, and whole notes and rests. Ninth-grade students perform all dotted versions of those notes, and perform triplets and barred groups of two and four sixteenth notes, and can do so in simple, compound, and asymmetric meters. As eleventh and twelfth graders, students will perform complex rhythmic patterns that include eighth and sixteenth notes and rests in compositions including asymmetric meters.
This is the strong illustration of a spiral curriculum because an appropriate sequence and building of skills related to one musical concept (rhythm/meter) are presented. It represents the “spiral” process that involves learners increasing their knowledge by building upon previous knowledge.
Examples of spiral curriculum in music
Examples of spiral curriculum in music include sequential educational objectives that focus on the development of specific skills in any one of the musical elements. Examples of spiral curriculum often focus on the gradual progression and building - over time - of specific skills related to one musical concept or component, such as melody, rhythm/meter, or harmony.
Spiral curriculum for music
Spiral curriculum for music facilitates students increasing knowledge and skills based upon on previous musical knowledge and skills. It promotes a sequential approach to learning musical concepts and facilitates teachers making valid assessments of each student’s growth of knowledge and skills.
Which of the following best describe the best sitting posture for singers?
A. Feet flat on the floor, shoulders back, head and chest up, lean back slightly
B. Feet flat on floor, shoulders slightly forward, head and chest up, back slightly forward
C. Feet flat on floor, shoulders back, head and chest up, back slightly forward
D. Feet crossed underneath chair, shoulders back, head and chest up, back slightly forward
Answer C is correct.
All the elements of posture noted in this response are correct. From head to toe, these components of posture help to align the spine, trunk, neck and head in the singer’s “instrument.” Maintaining and making good posture a habit will help produce better and more consistent singing by individuals and by the collective choir.
Which of the following are desirable musical characteristics for a middle school choral director to search for when selecting literature for choirs that have singers with changing voices?
A. Music with vocal lines with frequent register changes; Music with melismatic passages at a fast tempo
B. Music with extended piano passages at the outer limits of range of the vocal range; Music with vocal lines comprised primarily of long phrases
C. Music that restricts the voice parts to notes that are primarily in their tessitura; Music that remains primarily in a limited and moderate range of dynamics
D. Music with extended forte passages at the outer limits of the vocal range; Music with vocal lines containing sudden register changes
Answer C is correct.
Tessitura is the range of the majority of the notes for a vocal part or type, and is smaller than the sing-able notes that comprise the range. Due to a lesser degree of vocal control and flexibility in adolescent singers, a significant amount of dynamic extremes should be avoided, particularly at the extremes of the vocal range.
The term “constructive criticism”
Inherent in the term “constructive criticism” is building - constructing - rather than taking down, or destructing. A positive rehearsal environment is preferable to a negative environment. Following positive feedback from the director, even when it is mixed with negative feedback and instructions for addressing a problem, ensemble members are often more inclined to work harder to improve. Music directors should make a conscious effort to remember to employ positive reinforcement during rehearsal to help make their criticism constructive.