Flashcards in Music EC-12 CD=flashcards Deck (140)
Sforzando is a musical direction which strongly accents a note, to be played with sudden force. The abbreviation for sforzando used in a musical score is sfz.
Marcato is a musical term meaning "marked, stressed, or accented." This can mean each note is emphasized or accented to some degree. The superlative form of the word is marcatissimo.
Staccato is a detached, separated articulation of playing or singing. It is indicated by a dot above or below the notehead. The effect will be a short note that begins and ends abruptly.
Portamento is a musical direction to carry the sound very smoothly (very legato) from note to note, and sounding piiches in between any two notated pitches. This is used most often in vocal and string music.
Syncopation can be achieved in multiple, and typically is characterized by strong beats being de-emphasized, and weak or "off-beats" being emphasized. Though employed by composers, syncopation is commonly associated with jazz.
Hemiola is a rhythmic compositional technique often employed by Renaissance and Baroque composers, providing rhythmic variety to compositions in a triple meter. The use of hemiolas can be also found in compositions of later eras. In modern metrical term, it can be described as the grouping of 2 measures of notes in a triple meter (e.g. 3/4) into three measures of duple meter (e.g. 2/4). In the sixth and seventh measure of the example by Vaughan Williams, the text "My God and" encompasses a hemiola.
Polyrhythm is the simultaneous presentation of multiple rhythms. It is a compositional device used in some 14th century secular compositions as well as 20th century compositions and is found in jazz.
Bitonality is the simultaneous presentation of two tonalities. The degree of instability created by the simultaneous use of multiple tonal foundations depends can be influenced by many factors, including how closely the keys are related.
Contrapuntal is the adjective form of counterpoint. Strictly defined, a contrapuntal passage or work is one that is composed in accordance with the rules of counterpoint. Counterpoint is derived from the expression "note against note," and the development of this compositional approach and related guidelines spans the 9th to 17th century.
Fugal is the adjective form of fugue. A fugue is an imitative contrapuntal compositional form or technique, similar to a canon. It differs from a canon in that following the first statement of the thematic material (labeled the" subject"), the second iteration (labeled the "answer) enters at a different pitch level, often at the fifth (rather than at the octave or unison).
Canonic is the adjective form of canon. Canon means "rule" and could be considered the most restrictive form of imitative counterpoint. Strict canonic writing would involve exact repetition(s) of the initial melodic material. As with fugue and counterpoint, however, composers over the centuries sometimes opt to embrace the general style rather than the rules.
Polyphonic is the adjective form of polyphony. Polyphony literally means "many sounds," and indicates the simultaneous sounding of two or more relatively independent parts.
Tritone” is a term which labels the interval of an augmented 4th and a diminished 5th, which are actually the same pitch, but are notated differently as either a "raised" fourth rather or a "lowered" 5th. A tritone is a half- step more than a perfect 4th and a half-step less than a diminished 5th. It is formed by the lowest and highest note of a diminished triad. The tritone is sometimes referred to as the "devil's interval."
A natural minor scale is characterized by a lowered third and sixth scale degrees when compared to a major scale. A natural minor scale is comprised of ascending (and descending) notes in the following whole (w) step and half (h) step sequence w-h-w-w-h-w-w. Unlike the harmonic and melodic minor scales, there are no alterations (raised or lowered scale degrees). Playing the white keys from a to a on the keyboard is often used to aurally and visually illustrate the natural minor scale.
A harmonic minor scale is a natural minor scale with a raised seventh scale degree, both ascending and descending. The raised seventh scale degree facilitates the function of the 7 to 1 "leading tone" that appears without alteration in major scales and keys. A harmonic minor scale can be easily visualized and heard by playing a to a the white keys on the piano, but playing g# rather than g ascending and descending.
A major scale is comprised of ascending (and descending) notes in the following whole (w) step and half (h) step sequence w-w-h-w-w-w-h. Playing the white keys from c to c on the keyboard is often used to aurally and visually illustrate the major scale. The notes of a major scale are the same ascending and descending.
A melodic minor scale is a natural minor scale with raised ascending sixth and seventh scale degrees that are "naturalized" on the descending half of the scale. As suggested by the label, this scale is often employed in the composition of melodies in minor keys. A melodic minor scale can be easily visualized and heard by playing a to a on the white keys on the piano, but raising the f and g to f# and g# while ascending, but playing g natural and f natural while descending.
Imperfect authentic cadence
An imperfect authentic cadence concludes with a V-I progression, which defines an authentic cadence. The final note in the top (soprano) line is not the tonic note, making the cadence "imperfect." The tonic note in the top line on the final "I" chord in a plagal (IV-I) or authentic (V-I) cadence determines a "perfect" quality.
Perfect plagal cadence
A perfect plagal cadence concludes with a IV-I progression, which defines a plagal cadence. The final note in the top (soprano) line is the tonic note, making the cadence "perfect." The tonic note in the top line on the final "I" chord in a plagal (IV-I) or authentic (V-I) cadence determines a "perfect" quality.
Perfect Authentic Cadence
The example concludes with a V-I progression, which defines an authentic cadence. The final note in the top (soprano) line is the tonic note, making the cadence "perfect." The tonic note in the top line on the final "I" chord in a plagal (IV-I) or authentic (V-I) cadence determines a "perfect" quality.
Imperfect plagal cadence
An imperfect plagal cadence is a IV-I progression with the final note in the top (soprano) line is not being the tonic note, which makes the cadence "imperfect." The tonic note in the top line on the final "I" chord in a plagal (IV-I) or authentic (V-I) cadence determines a "perfect" quality.
A half cadence is defined as a chord progression that concludes with I-V. While it provides some sense of rest or arrival, the feeling of finality is much stronger in plagal and authentic cadences.
A deceptive cadence is identified as a chord progression that concludes with V-vi (Dominant to sub-mediant). It is referred to as a deceptive cadence because it "deceives" the listener that is expecting an V-I (authentic) cadence. Like the half cadence, it provides some sense of rest or arrival, but the feeling of finality is much stronger in plagal and authentic cadences.
Bitonal describes music that is a simultaneous combination of two keys. An early example of bitonal music is Psalm 67 (1898) by Charles Ives.
Tonal music is characterized by certain chords (e. g. Tonic and dominant) and progressions providing structure to a composition.
The Piano Suite Op. 25 (1923) by Schoenberg is an example of atonal music. There is no tonal center, and all 12 notes in the octave have equal weight.
Polytonal describes music that simultaneously employs more than one key, typically in a contrapuntal texture, as in the works of Holst, Milhaud, and Bartok.
Major-major seventh chord
A major-major seventh chord is a major triad with a major 7th above the root added.
Major-minor seventh chord
A major-minor seventh chord seventh chord is a major triad with a minor 7th above the root added. It is the construction of a dominant seventh chord.