Flashcards in Music EC-12 CD=6.History of Western Music Deck (46)
Middle Age period (eras)
Renaissance period (eras)
Baroque period (eras)
Classical period (eras)
Romantic period (eras)
20th Century eras
Contemporary or Modern period (eras)
Which of the following statements does not apply to both the Medieval and Renaissance eras?
A. The church was a primary patron of music, and instrumental music was not as developed as vocal music.
B. Preserving music using a system of music notation resulted in a more stable body of music literature.
C. Music printing was important to the dissemination of music in Europe.
D. Chant and chant melodies were utilized in the composition of sacred music.
Answer C is Correct.
The advent of music printing was an important milestone that occurred in the mid 1400's, during the Renaissance period, and is not associated with events of the Middle Ages.
To what musical period/era do all the following general stylistic statements best apply?
-More emphasis on instrumental music than on vocal/choral music;
-Voices and instruments are freely mixed;
-Opera is an important source of entertainment;
-Melodies are ornate and often make use of dramatic leaps;
-Repetition and simple binary and ternary forms are often the foundation for musical structure;
-Harmony based largely on major/minor tonality;
-Dissonances become more common
Answer B is correct.
The Baroque period is an era that is can generally be divided into 3 periods by some scholars: Early (1580-1630), Middle (1630-1680, and Late (1680-1730). The latter period is extended to 1750 to include the compositions of Bach and Handel, whose works generally mark a culmination and conclusion to the era. Most of the general statements could be used to describe music of the Classical (1750-1830) and early Romantic period, except for simple binary and ternary forms being structural foundation, because sonata-allegro form became the notable structural form of the Classical era.
Rococo (musical period)
Rococo is a term used more to describe a late 17th - early 18th century French style of art and architecture than the lighter, smaller scale French music (e.g. works of Couperin and Rameau) composed and imitated in Germany and Austria in the late Baroque/Early Classical period. Considered a vague term in musical style, it is associated with the galant style of music, and is used to categorize certain works that are no longer Baroque, but not yet classical.
Classical period (definition)
The term “Classical” is another label applied more definitively to art and architecture than to music, and this general period between the Baroque and Romantic eras may be better named a “neo-classical” period as it involved to the renewed interest in the ancient Greek and Roman “classic” art and architecture. In music, without earlier “classical” music models, the musical “philosophy” might be described, perhaps too simply, as a strong tendency for symmetry, balance, form, and structure, as demonstrated in the works of Haydn, Mozart, and to a lesser degree, Beethoven. These tendencies would be in contrast to the predisposition of expression that characterizes the works of composers in the later Romantic era. The development of sonata-allegro form, the classical symphony, and the concerto are hallmarks of the Classical musical style (1750-1830).
Which of the following statements does not apply to music of the Romantic period?
A. They were becoming more interested in nature and the supernatural.
B. They wrote more music with patriotic and nationalist undercurrents.
C. They were more inclined to be trained in universities and conservatories.
D. They were more inclined to entitle music by genre (i.e. Sonata #5 in A).
Answer D is correct.
A by-product of the trend in the Romantic era away from absolute music to program music was to attach “extra-musical” meaning to compositions by entitling a work more descriptively. An example is Beethoven’s Sonata no. 23 (c. 1805) in F minor (op. 57) that a publisher titled Appasionata upon publishing an arrangement for piano duet in 1838.
Romantic period (3 statements)
Paralleling the Romantic movt. in literature and art, some composers were drawn to nature and picturesque expression, as illustrated in Richard Strauss’ last tone poem, Eine Alpensinfonie(c.1915), while other composers were drawn to supernatural, as illustrated in Weber’s Der Freischütz, Schubert’s Der Erlkönig, and “Witches Sabbath” movt. of Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique.
In Romantic era, many composers incorporated various musical elements of their homeland into their works, including folkdances and folksong melodies and rhythms, such as Chopin’s Fantasia on Polish Airs(1828). Some compositions reflect strong political or patriotic influences, such as Verdi’s La battaglia di Legnano(1848).
The medieval church organized some of earliest formal “schools” of music to train singers. Specialist schools for students evolved during 17th century (Vivaldi’s appointment to the Pietà in Venice in 1704), but it was in 19th century that saw a major increase in establishment of conservatories in Europe. This was consistent with composers’ livelihood becoming dependent on public support and patronage of individuals rather than employment by courts or church. Beethoven was one of first composers to attain to some degree the status of celebrity rather than employee or servant.
John Cage (1912-1992), a leading figure in the postwar avant garde movement, is credited with developing the “prepared” piano for his 1940 composition, “Bacchanale.” A “prepared piano” has its timbre changed inserting or attaching objects (e.g. screws, bolts, rubber erasers) to the piano strings. Cage further developed this practice, and was also taken up by other composers.
Charles Ives (1874-1954) is known for his compositional innovations in harmony, rhythm, and form, and is considered one of, if not the leading American composer of the 20th century. Characterized as eccentric, unique Americana themes and perspectives are present in much of his music. Though he apparently composed primarily during evenings and weekends, his works and compositional techniques are complex and substantial, and should not be considered that of a musical amateur.
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) was an Austrian-born composer, conductor, and teacher, who moved to the United States in 1933 to escape persecution by the Nazi regime. Schoenberg’s early works are in the romantic post-Wagnerian style, but he continued to extend chromatic harmony and tonal structures beyond their limits. He is credited with composing “atonal” music in 1909 in his 3 Pieces for Pianoforte (Op. 11), and is considered to be one of music’s most influential composers.
Milton Babbitt (b. 1916), an American mathematician, composer, and theorist, extended Schoenberg’s concept of twelve-tone system to new levels, including towards “totally serialized” music. While expanding the realm of 12-tone theory that he embarked on in the 1940’s, Babbitt was also a pioneer in electronic music, creating works for synthesizer and for electronic tape.
Epilogue of Hodie (Christmas cantata)
a Christmas cantata composed in 1954 by the British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958). The performing forces indicated in the score identify it with the 20th century, particularly the inclusion of the pianoforte and the percussion. While the score illustrates similarities with some compositions from the Romantic era, it is more typical of a large-scale work of the 20th century.
Giovanni Gabrieli (years)
William Byrd (years)
CPE Bach (years)