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Flashcards in My Blue Card Review Deck (81):

Olive Branch Petition

Last gesture of peace and prevention of total war. Asked King George to intervene with Parliament but he refused.


Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Arms

Urged King George III to consider colonial grievances and provided raising of professional military force


Declaration of Rights and Grievances

Sent to King George III urged him to correct wrongs and acknowledged authority of parliament to regulate trade


Constitutional Convention

Meant to revise and repair Articles of Confederation but resulted in the making of the constitution.


Shay's Rebellion

Fought by Daniel Shays. Demanded restitution and tax relief. Undertook seizure of state arsenal and Mass. Militia quelled the uprising


Daniel Shays

Along with Mass. farmers he caused a rebellion and undertook state arsenal


Glorious Revolution

Occurred when parliament overthrew King James II and replaced him with Mary and William III


Pueblo Revolt

Occurred in Santa Fe. Most successful uprising against Spanish authority. NA took over gov. residence and remained there to protect land. Spain unable to claim for 50 years


Holy Experiment

Est. by William Penn to attract a wide array of potential settlers. Lured to Pennsylvania with the promise of land, religious freedom, and democracy.



Aka puritans. Believed they must remain in Church of England to reform it


New England Confederation

Formed to provide collective security from attack surrounding NA tribes. Widened differences between Mother country and colonial citizens


Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

Sermon given by Jonathan Edwards. Church goers told that god was angry with sinners and only those who followed gods word were free from damnation


Church of England

Aka Anglican Church. Founded by King Henry when he broke away from the Roman Catholic Church.


Sir William Berkeley

Enraged poor farmers by remaining friendly with Native Americans and failing to protect the land.


Tea Act

Act that lowered price of tea. Colonists refused to purchase tea.


Townsend Acts

Brought harsh taxes on goods like glass, paper, and tea. Board of customs appointed to enforce Writs of Assistance.


Massachusetts Circular Letter

Written by Samuel Adams explaining that there was no distinction between internal and external taxes.


Proclamation of 1763

Document signed by King George III set a line that barred colonists from settling west of Appalachian mountains. Most colonists ignored the proclamation.


Peace of Paris

Treaty that ended the French and Indian war. Allowed British to take Canada and Florida


Act of Toleration

Ensured religious freedom in Maryland for all Christians. Not tolerant of all religions. Provided death penalty for non- Christians.


Lord Baltimore

Aka George Calvert. Create colony that would serve as a haven for Catholics. He died before he could set forth on mission and left the colony to his son, who est. Maryland



Method est. by Spain to enslave NA population. Spanish crown would give land to Spaniards but recipients were obligated to care for their native slaves.


Intolerable Acts

Aka Quebec Act. Allowed French region to expand it's borders, taking potential land away from colonists.



Name given to colonists who sided with the British



Loyalists. Sided with British


Common sense

Written by Thomas Paine. Used John Locke's natural rights philosophy. Citizens were obligated to rebel against Britain



First English settlement in North America. Est. by Sir Walter Raleigh but vanished without a trace


John Winthrop

Gov. of Massachusetts Bay Colony who wanted to create a "city upon a hill."


Stamp Act

Tax on all paper, signified by a stamp. First time the colonists had been subjected to a direct tax.


Quartering Act

Required colonial citizens to provide room and board for British soldiers. This act was laxly enforced and rarely affected colonists lives


Sugar Acts

Raised amount demanded on sweeteners. Britain wanted to collect tax to make up revenue they lost because of Triangular Tarde


Boston Tea Party

A group of colonists dressed as Indians boarded British ship and dumped tea into the Boston harbor. This led to the Coercive Acts.


Boston Massacre

Bostonians began to harass British troops and the guards fired, killing five and wounding six.


Triangular Trade

New England colonies provided timber, fish, and goods to the Caribbean in exchange for Molasses to make rum. The rum would go to Africa in exchange for slaves.


Jonathan Edwards

New Light preacher credited with starting the Great Awakening by giving sermons. Most famous sermon was "sinners in the hands of an angry god."



City in Massachusetts that held mass hysteria related to witchcraft. Tweety people executed and Puritan clergy was damaged beyond repair.



Aka puritans who felt they needed to abandon the Church of England. This group set out aboard the Mayflower bound for Virginia


William and Mary

Appointed as the successors of King James II. Colonists expected less direct rule but parliament continued to restrict the colonies.


Nathaniel Bacon

Raised rebellion in Virginia. Led poor farmers in a series of raids and set fire to Jamestown.


John Rolfe

Leader of Jamestown colony. Introduced tobacco to the colonies and it became their cash crop. Farmers had to grow large tracts of the crop, creating the plantation system.



Name given to colonists who fought for independence


Bacon's Rebellion

Led by Nathaniel Bacon. Engaged in raids against villages. Defeated Berkeley's forces and set fire to Jamestown


Writs of Assistance

Allowed custom officials to search colonial homes, businesses, and warehouses for smuggled goods without warrant.


Salutary neglect

British could protect colonies and provide trade opportunities but encouraged colonies to develop their own system of government, economics, and ideologies.



Protested against similarities between Anglican Church and Catholic Church. Sought to purify Anglican Church.


Coercive Acts

Closed Boston harbor until tea from Boston Tea Party was paid for. Revoked Massachusetts charter.


Declaratory Act

Stamp Act replaced by this act which maintained the right if the crown to tax colonies



Influx of more affluent immigrants widened the gap between rich and poor. Puritans viewed wealth and success as a sign that one was a member of the elect.


Headright system

Est. in Chesapeake to deal with labor shortages due to disease and low birth rate. Land owner paid for indentured servant and I turn revived 50 acres of land. Servant bound until they paid in labor


Fundamental Orders

"First constitution" in colonial America. Drafted by citizens of Connecticut. Modeled after Massachusetts Bay Colony


Dominion of New England

Aimed at brining New England colonies under strict royal control. Colonies existed purely for economic benefit of mother country.


Roger Williams

Minister from Salem. Believed colonists had no right to live on land taken from Native Americans. Believed an individuals conscience made rule of civil gov. irrelevant. Complete separation of church and state.


Quebec Act

Aka Intolerable Acts. Allowed former French region to expand borders, taking potential land from colonists in Ohio River Valley.


Thomas Paine

Published pamphlet called 'Common Sense'. Used John Locke's natural rights philosophy to justify the citizens were obligated to rebel.


First Continental Congress

Meeting of 12 colonies. Group met to discuss reactions to Intolerable Acts. Urged colonies to build military reserves and boycott British goods. Also sent Declaration of Rights and Grievances to king.


Declaration of Independence

Drafted by Thomas Jefferson and four other delegates. Contained preamble that reflected John Locke's civil rights. Listed 27 grievances directed at the crown and parliament. Official break from England.


John Calvin

French intellectual expanded on Martin Luther's Protestant ideals. Established Calvinism. Followers settled in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire


Protestant Reformation

Religious movement against Catholic Church. Came about as Martin Luther published his 95 Theses. Protested Catholic Church and promoted that faith was enough for salvation.


Anne Hutchinson

Believed that gods chosen people were predestined. Banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony


French and Indian War

Aka Seven Years War. Started when French fortified Ohio River Valley. Washington a men sent to prevent French. Forces were weak and surrendered. End result was Peace of Paris.


The Great Awakening

Historians believed this religious experience was one if the foundations of colonial society. New sects within Protestant faith arose as a result of religious rebirth. Many universities were founded to educate new light ministers.


New Light preachers

Preached about "fire and brimstone" they'd face if they did not absolve their sins publicly. Sought to undermine Old light preachers.


Mayflower Compact

Drafted while pilgrims sailed toward New World. Set up secular body to administer leadership to colony. Set stage for concepts of separation of church and state.


The Great Migration

Occurred when large numbers of Puritan families sought religious freedom and a fresh start. Destination was Massachusetts Bay Colony.



Believes in the power of ones inner light. Ordered I leave Massachusetts Bay Colony. Several executed and several joined William Penn


John Locke

British philosopher created theory of natural rights. All men should be ruled by natural laws. Natural rights of life, liberty, and property.


Stamp Act Congress

Representatives from 9 out of 12 colonies sent word to England that only colonial legislatures had the authority to tax colonists. Colonists agreed external taxes were within the rights of the crown to impose.


Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Led by Samuel Adams. Intimidated tax collectors by attacking their homes, burning them, and tarring them.


Pontiac's Rebellion

Les by Chief Pontiac who launched an attack on new colonial settlements. Damage to British forts and colonial settlements was significant. British forces sent to protect colonies.


Albany Plan of Union

Constructed by Albany Congress. Called for a confederation of colonies to provide defense from attack by European foes. Colonies rejected plan.


Treaty of Paris

Peace settlement that ended the American Revolution. Formal recognition as America as a country. Retention of fishing rights in Newfoundland. Americans agreed to repay debts.


Articles of Confederation

Created by Second Continental Congress. Ratified and provided a template for government. Provided for unicameral legislative branch which could wage war, make treaties and borrow money.


Land Ordinance of 1785

Required new townships to set aside a parcel of land for public education.


Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Established guidelines for attaining statehood. Territories with at least 60000 people could apply for statehood. Banned slavery north of Ohio River


Halfway Covenant

Have no converted puritans partial membership in the Church. Many young puritans were not full members of congregational church. Children of these people could not be baptized and church was losing membership.


Treaty of Torsesillias

Signed between Spain and Portugal. Decided how Christopher Columbus's discoveries of New World would be divided.


Virginia Company

Lead by Captain John Smith. It's first venture was to create a colony in Jamestown. To find gold, Christianize natives, and secure passage to India. Company have settlers a charter.


Battle of Saratoga

Fought by Benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates and was the most important battle of American Revolution. American forces able to cut off British charge and secure surrender of Burgoyne's army.


Alexander Hamilton

Political heavy weight secured calling of another convention to be held in Philadelphia to repair articles of confederation.


James Madison

Political heavyweight at convention in Philadelphia to repair Articles of Confederation



Colonies existed solely to provide raw materials and as a market of consumers to mother country.