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Flashcards in My Red Cards Deck (55):
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Transcendentalists

This group embodied the romantic spirit of the US by spurning materialism and embracing self reliance. Lived the lifestyle espoused by Emerson and Thoreau.

1

The Shakers

Led by "Mother" Ann Lee. Known for their 'shaking' as they felt the spirit of God pulse through them. Eventually died out due to forbidding of sexual relations.

2

The Oneida Commune

Group founded by John Humphrey Noyes. Meant to be the shining example of equality between all members. Controversial from the beginning. Shared spouses, this was viewed as immoral from the outside. The group eventually died out.

3

Knickerbockers

Group including Washington Irving that started the trend of American fiction by using domestic settings and characters for tales. Tales such as "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow".

4

Nat Turner's Rebellion

Uprising led by a Virginia slave in 1831 resulted in the deaths of over 50 million white men, women, and children and the retaliatory killings of hundreds of slaves.

5

Maine Law

This law completely prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages in this state. Soon after 12 other states would pass similar laws.

6

The North Star

This antislavery journal published by Fredrick Douglass chronicled the ugliness of slavery for readers, and argued that the constitution could be used as a weapon against slavery.

7

Declaration of Sentiments

Document drafted by the feminist leaders who met in Seneca Falls to discuss the plight of women in the US. Closely modeled the Declaration of Independence by declaring that "all men and women are created equal".

8

Walden

This book, written by Henry David Thoreau, chronicled his self-initiated experiment where he excused himself from society by living in seclusion in the woods for two years.

9

On Civil Disobedience

Influential essay written by Thoreau that advocated passive resistance as a form of justifiable protest.

10

Underground Railroad

Elaborate network that helped fugitive slaves flee the US or at least to reach free states.

11

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

More commonly known as the Mormon Church, this group was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830

12

Liberty Party

This organization came about as a splinter from the American Antislavery Society. This group accepted the membership of women.

13

American Antislavery Society

Organization founded by William Lloyd Garrison strove to combat the proslavery contingent. Claimed the Constitution was a proslavery document.

14

Seneca Falls

Site of a meeting with feminist leadership including Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B Anthony. Here the Declaration of Sentiments was drafted. "All men and women are created equal".

15

Perfectionism

This belief system promoted the idea that humankind could have a life that resembled the life of Jesus. They could obtain this through faith, hard work, education, and temperance.

16

Cult of Domesticity

Belief based on the fact that in many American homes it was no longer necessary for the women to work both the fields and the home. Women's roles were defined as homemakers and mothers.

17

Sam Houston

Led texans in a revolt against Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, the military dictator or Mexico. This man declared Texas as a republic independent of Mexico. This man captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a decree granting independence of Texas

18

Bear Flag Republic

The name that California called itself after it had been declared independent following the near end of the Mexican war. John C Fremont was it's leader.

19

Wilmot Proviso

Amendment aimed to prohibit slavery in the new land acquired by the war with Mexico. Passed thought the House but failed in the Senate

20

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

This treaty ended the Mexican War and granted California and most of the southwest to the US. America agreed to pay $15 million to Mexico.

21

Oregon Trail

This dangerous path was used by thousands in the mid 1840's. took travelers six months to reach their destination at the end of this path.

22

Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too!

This slogan was used in the campaign of Harrison and Tyler. The pair won, defeating Van Buren in the 1840 election.

23

Harriet Beecher Stowe

This woman wrote Uncle Toms Cabin in 1852. The novel gained fast notoriety in the North and scorn from the South. Galvanized northerners to believe slavery was morally wrong and southerners grew in their convictions to protect it.

24

Apologists

This group spoke of happy lives of southern slaves who were clothed, fed, and housed by benevolent slave owners.

25

Free-Soil Party

This political party was made up of antislavery advocates from all political parties. "Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men." Held some on the same beliefs of the old Whigs but opposed the expansion of slavery.

26

49ers

Name for the rough group of young men that loved adventure and who moved west following the discovery of gold in 1848

27

Republican Party

This party was opposed to the expansion of slavery and the Kansas Nebraska Act. Despite the lost of the election of 1856, they still made a show of running Fremont who won 11 of 16 free states in the electoral college.

28

Border ruffians

Name of the group of proslavery farmers from nearby Missouri who settled small areas along the border in order to vote in the election that would determine the slavery issue for Kansas.

29

The Constitutional Union Party

This political party was concerned that if Lincoln won the election of 1860, that the south would secede and that would mean the end of the union.

30

Confederate States of America

Just after Lincoln won the election of 1860, SC voted to secede from the union. Within six weeks sex more Deep South states decided to join South Carolina. This "new country" named Jefferson Davis as it's president.

31

Gadsden Purchase

This transfer of property was signed by President Franklin Pierce. The terms were that Mesilla Valley in the southernmost region of New Mexico and Arizona was transferred from Mexico to the US.

32

Fugitive Slave Law

Law designed to reenslave those slaves who had made it to freedom. In addition the law denied legal rights to captured blacks and sentenced whites who harbored fugitives to heavy fines or jail time.

33

The Compromise of 1850

Series of laws were a method of averting a national crisis as a result of conflicting beliefs between radical southerners and other states. This series of laws would admit California as a free state, divide the Mexican cession into NM and Utah territories with popular sovereignty serving as the basis for determining slave status, ban slave trade in Washington DC, and enact a stricter fugitive slave law

34

The Kansas Nebraska Act

This law came to the forefront when Douglas proposed to divide the Nebraska territory into two regions. Because both regions lay above the 36 30 line this could theoretically open these lands to slavery.

35

Lecompton Constitution

This document was drafted by a group of Missourians who traveled across the border to Kansas and organized a proslavery government hoping to create a new state. This document would only allow citizens to vote for the document with or without slavery.

36

Dred Scott v. Sanford

The Supreme Court made a ruling on this case that said the 36 30 provision of the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that all African Americans were not citizens, making them ineligible to sue in federal court. The Missouri compromise was unconstitutional because it stripped slave owners of their rightful property once they moved northward.

37

Freeport Doctrine

This document written by Douglas stayed that communities would have to pass and enforce laws to protect the institution of slavery for it to exist.

38

Bleeding Kansas

Name given to the area where fighting broke out among the pro and antislavery factions at the border

39

Emancipation Proclamation

This declared freedom of all slaves in confederate states. However it only applied to slaves in the confederate states; border states were still legal.

40

Gettysburg

Union and confederate armies fought in this PA town. This was the deadliest and most important battle of the war. The confederates would not have another victory after this battle.

41

Anaconda Plan

Plan devised by Winfield Scott to wear down the Confederacy. In the first phase the union navy would blockade all southern ports of entry, cutting the confederates off from supplies and trade.

42

The Pacific Railway Act of 1862

This act approved the building of a transcontinental railroad that would transform the west by linking the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific

43

Appomattox Court House

It was at this location that the Confederate army of northern Virginia officially surrendered.

44

Greenbacks

Currency was used in place of gold during war time

45

Sojourner Truth

This woman helped fugitive slaves flee slave states or the US through the Underground Railroad

46

Fredrick Douglass

Published the North Star, an antislavery journal that chronicled the ugliness of slavery for readers, and argued that the constitution could be used as a weapon against slavery.

47

Ironclads

Naval ships that were first launched in 1862. Examples are CSS Merrimac and the USD Monitor. These replaced wooden ships.

48

Sarah and Angelina Grimke

These abolitionists voiced their opposition to make dominance, this starting the dialogue about women's roles and the plight of women in the US.

49

Joseph Smith

According to Mormon tradition, the angel Moroni visited this man in his bedroom one night in 1823. The angel told him of a sacred text buried by the lost tribe of Israel. By 1830 this man translated the text and organized the Mormon Church.

50

Brigham Young

This new Mormon leader collected his flock and moved to Utah. Mormons remained outsiders due to their practices and beliefs, notably polygamy. Only after they forbid that practice could Utah become a state

51

Ralph Waldo Emmerson

Transcendentalist writer traveled across America delivering lectures. Urged Americans to shun wealth and embrace the natural world. A distinctive American culture had begun to bloom under this mans influence.

52

Henry David Thoreau

Transcendentalist writer spurned materialism and embraced self reliance. Wrote 'Walden' and the essay "On Civil Disobedience".

53

Nathaniel Hawthorne

This American authors book, the Scarlet Letter, raised questions about religion and society.

54

American Temperance Society

This organization strove to encourage drinkers to limit their intake of alcohol and then eventually take a vow of abstinence.