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Flashcards in Name that Bug! Deck (193):
1

Lacks muramic acid in its cell wall?

Chlamydia

2

Lacks sterols in its cell membrane?

Mycoplasma

3

Stained by Giemsa? (5)

Chlamydia, Rickettsiae, Trypanosomes, Plasmodium, Borrelia

4

Stained by Ziehl-Neelsen? (2)

Nocardia, Mycobacterium (acid fast!)

5

Stained by India Ink or mucicarmine?

Cryptococcus

6

Stained by silver?

Fungi (esp. pneumocystis), Legionella, H. pylori

7

Cultured on chocolate agar including Factors V/X (NAD/hematin)?

H. flu

8

Cultured on Thayer-Martin (VPN) media?

Neisseria

9

Cultured on Bordet-Gengou agar?

Bordetella pertussis

10

Cultured on Tellurite/Loffler medium?

C. Diphtheriae

11

Cultured on Lowenstein-Jenson agar?

M. tuberculosis

12

Cultured on Eaton agar with cholesterol?

Mycoplasma

13

Pink on MacConkey agar?

Lactose fermentors
1. Fast - E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter
2. Slow - Citrobacter, Serratia, Others

14

Metallic sheen on EMB agar?

E. coli

15

Cultured on charcoal yeast extract agar with cysteine/iron?

Legionella

16

Cultured on Sabouraud agar?

Fungi

17

Obligate aerobes (4)

Nagging Pests Must Breathe
1. Nocardia
2. Pseudomonas
3. Mycobacteria
4. Bacillus

18

Obligate anaerobes (3)

Can't Breathe Air
1. Clostradium
2. Bacteriodes
3. Actinomyces

(lack catalase, SOD; resistant to aminoglycosides due to o2-dependent transport)

19

Facultative Intracellular (8)

Listen Sally Yer Friend Bruce Must Leave Now

Listeria, Salmonella, Yersinia, Francisella, Brucella, Mycobacteria, Legionella, Neisseria

20

Encapsulated Bacteria (7) - sickle cell, splenectomy

SHiNE SKiS

S. pneumoniae, H. Flu, N. Meningitis, E. coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Strep (Group B)

21

Catalase-positive organisms (7) - CGD

PLACESS for your "cats"

Pseudomonas, Listeria, Aspergillus, Candida, E. coli, S. aureus, Serratia

22

Urease-positive organisms (7)

PUNCH & KiSS

Proteus, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Cryptococcus, H. pylori // Klebsiella, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus

23

Yellow sulfur granules

Actinomyces israeli

24

Yellow pigment

S. aureus

25

Blue-green pigment

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

26

Red pigment

Serratia marcescens

27

Protein A (Fc region of IgG)

S. aureus

28

M protein

Group A strep

29

IgA protease

SHiN - S.pneumo, H.flu, Neisseria

30

Toxin inactivating EF-2 by ADP-ribosylation --| protein synthesis

C. diphtheriae, P. aeruginosa

31

Toxin inactivating 60S ribosome by removing adenine from 28S rRNA --| protein synthesis

Shigella, EHEC (O157:H7)

32

Phage-encoded toxins (6)

ABCDES
- Group A Strep, Bordetella pertussis, Cholera, Diphtheria, EHEC (O157:H7), Shigella

33

Toxins inhibiting protein synthesis (4)

C. diphtheriae, Pseudomonas, Shigella, EHEC (O157:H7)

34

Toxins increasing fluid secretion (4)

ETEC (x2), B. anthracis, V. cholerae, B. cereus

35

Toxins inhibiting phagocytic ability (1)

B. pertussis

36

Toxins inhibiting release of neurotransmitter (2)

Botulinum, Tetanus

37

Toxins lysing cell membranes (3)

B. cereus, C. perfringens, S. pyogenes

38

Toxins that serve as superantigens (2)

S. aureus, S. pyogenes (x2)

39

Toxins that serve as proteases (5)

Botulinum toxin and tetanus toxin
LF (lethal factor) of Bacillus anthracis cleaves MAPK
Exfoliatin of Staphylococcus aureus cleaves desmoglein
Exotoxin B (SpeB) of certain "flesh-eating" strains of Streptococcus pyogenes

40

Ability for transformation

SHiN organisms

41

Transfer of plasmid genes only

F+ x F-

42

Transfer of plasmid and chromosomal genes

Hfr x F-

43

Generalized transduction

"Packaging" event, lytic phage

44

Specialized transduction

"Excision" event, lysogenic phage

45

Pneumonia after flu

S. aureus

46

Toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, rapid-onset food poisoning

S. aureus

47

pyrrolidonyl arylamidase- gram+

S. aureus

48

pyrrolidonyl arylamidase+ gram+

S. pyogenes

49

2nd MCC of UTI in young woman

S. saprophyticus

50

1st MCC of UTI in young woman

E. coli

51

MOPS (meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, sinusitis)

S. pneumoniae

52

Lancet-shaped gram+ diplococci

S. pneumoniae

53

"Rusty sputum" pneumonia, sickle cell sepsis

S. pneumoniae

54

Binds to fibrin-platelet aggregates on exposed subendothelial GAGs via dextrans

S. viridans (S. sanguinis)

55

Dental caries

S. viridans (S. mutans)

56

Pyogenic, toxigenic, and immunologic diseases associated

S. pyogenes

57

M protein (--| alternative complement)

S. pyogenes

58

+ ASO titer

S. pyogenes

59

Scarlet rash with strawberry tongue, sandpaper-like texture, circumoral pallor with desquamation after week #1

S. pyogenes (Scarlet Fever)

60

Severe pain/swelling --> hypotension/fever (sepsis)

S. pyogenes (Necrotizing fasciitis)

61

Group A Strep Glomerulonephritis

Impetigo > Pharyngitis

62

Rheumatic Fever

Pharyngitis (GAS)

63

Pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis in a baby

GBS

64

Produces CAMP factor and enlargens area of hemolysis formed by S. aureus

GBS

65

Hippurate test +

GBS

66

Intrapartum penicillin prophylaxis

GBS

67

Subacute endocarditis following GI/GU procedure

Enterococci

68

Grow in 6.5% NaCl and bile both

Enterococci

69

VRE

Enterococci (vancomycin-resistant)

70

Bacteremia and subacute endocarditis in colon cancer patients

S. bovis

71

Sore throat, lymphadenopathy, myocarditis, arrhythmias

C. diphtheriae

72

Metachromatic (blue/red) granules

C. diphtheriae

73

Elek test +

C. diphtheriae

74

Throat exudate with fibrin, leuks, bacteria, and necrotic epithelium

C. diphtheriae

75

"Chinese letter" appearance with V/Y chains

C. diphtheriae

76

Spastic paralysis, trimus, risus sardonicus

Tetanus

77

Floppy baby syndrome, flaccid paralysis

Botulinum

78

Double zone of clearing on blood agar

C. perfringens

79

Late onset food poisoning with transient watery diarrhea

C. perfringens

80

Enterotoxin and cytotoxin

C. difficile

81

Pseudomembranes in colon

C. difficile

82

2/2 clindamycin and ampicillin use

C. difficile

83

Toxic megacolon if untreated

C. difficile

84

Only bacterium with polypeptide capsule

B. anthracis

85

D. glutamate capsule

B. anthracis

86

Hemorrhagic mediastinitis (wide on CXR)

B. anthracis

87

"Medusa head colonies"

B. anthracis

88

Black eschar

B. anthracis

89

Spore-forming organisms

Bacillus, Clostridium

90

Fever, pulmonary hemorrhage, mediastinitis, shock

Woolsorter's disease - B. anthracis

91

Reheated rice syndrome

B. cereus

92

Cereulide toxin

B. cereus (Emetic Type)

93

N&V within 5 hours

B. cereus (Emetic Type)

94

NB diarrhea within 5-18 hours

B. cereus (Diarrhetic Type)

95

Narrow zone of beta-hemolysis on blood agar

Listeria

96

Immotile at 37 C, tumbling motility at 22 C

Listeria

97

Survives refrigeration (4 C)

Listeria

98

Unpasteurized dairy and deli products, transplacental, or vaginal transmission during birth

Listeria

99

Actin rocket tails to escape phagosome-->cytosol

Listeria

100

Only gram+ to produce LPS

Listeria

101

Granulomatosis infantiseptica, amnionitis, septicemia, meningitis (neonatal + immunocompromised)

Listeria

102

SNAP

Sulfonamides for Nocardia, Penicillin for Actinomyces

103

Gram+ anaerobe, non-acid fast, with branching filaments

Actinomyces

104

Normal oral flora

Actinomyces

105

Oral/facial abscesses and IUD infections

Actinomyces

106

Gram+ aerobe, acid fast, with branching filaments

Nocardia

107

Found in soil

Nocardia

108

Pulmonary infections in compromised and cutaneous infections post-trauma in immunocompetent

Nocardia

109

Caseating granulomas

TB

110

Fibrocaseous cavitary lesion in upper lobe

TB

111

Prophylaxis with azithromycin

MAI

112

Disseminated non-TB disease in AIDS

MAI

113

Fever, night sweats, weight loss, hemoptysis

TB

114

Cord factor, sulfatides in virulent strains

TB (prevents macrophage maturation and induce TNFa release; inhibits phagolysomal fusion)

115

Acid-fast bacillus that <3 cool temperatures

M. leprae

116

"Glove and stocking" loss of sensation

M. leprae

117

Reservoir in armadillos

M. leprae

118

Leonine facies, communicable, low-cell mediated immunity, hair loss, blindness

M. leprae (lepromatous)

119

Hypoesthetic, hairless skin plaques, few in #, strong cell-mediated immunity

M. leprae (tuberculoid)

120

Bacteria invading Schwann cells

M. leprae

121

Treated with dapsone, rifampin for tuberculoid form

M. leprae

122

Treated with dapsone, rifampin, and clofazimine for lepratomous form

M. leprae

123

MCC acute gastroenteritis in US

C. jejuni

124

Ox+, comma-shaped, corkscrew motility, grows at 42C

C. jejeuni

125

Ox+, comma-shaped, grows in alkaline media

V. cholerae

126

Infects with 10^6 organisms

V. cholerae

127

Infects with 10 organisms

Shigella

128

Infects with 500 organisms

C. jejuni

129

Infects with 1 organism

Entamoeba, Giardia

130

Infects with 10^7 organisms

Salmonella

131

Pleiomorphic gram- rods (4)

H. flu, Pasteurella, Brucella, Bordetella

132

Lactose non-fermenter, ox+

Pseudomonas

133

Lactose non-fermenter, ox- (4)

Shigella, Salmonella, Proteus, Yersinia

134

Rifampin prophylaxis

N. meningitis, H. Flu

135

Migratory polyarthritis, asymmetric, vesticulopustular rash

N. gonorrhea (septic arthritis)

136

Polyribotol ribose phosphate (PRP)+ capsule

H. Flu

137

Capsule binds Factor H and inhibits C3b deposition

H. Flu

138

Arthritis in an immigrant boy

H. Flu

139

Spreads by lymphatics

H. Flu

140

Inspiratory stridor, drooling, dysphagia, fever, "cherry-red" epiglottis

H. Flu

141

Arthritis, Epiglottitis, Meningitis, Otitis Media, Pneumonia

H. Flu

142

Vaccine contains PRP conjugated to diphtheria toxoid

H. Flu

143

Thumbprint sign on lateral neck radiograph

H. Flu

144

Severe pneumonia, fever, GI/CNS symptoms

Legionella (Legionnaire's Disease)

145

Mild flu-like syndrome

Legionella (Pontiac Fever)

146

Hyponatremia with pneumonia

Legionella

147

Few or no organisms with lots of PMNs

Legionella

148

Legionella treatment

Macrolide or quinolone

149

Pneumonia, Sepsis, External otitis, UTI, Drug Use, and Diabetic Osteomyelitis

Pseudomonas

150

Ecthyma grangenosum (large ulcer with necrotic region, rapidly progressive)

Pseudomonas

151

Aminoglycoside +/- extended spectrum beta-lactam, ciprofloxin

Pseudomonas treatment

152

Elastase, phospholipase C, pyocanin

Pseudomonas

153

Granulation tissue in ear canal

Pseudomonas

154

P fimbriae, K capsule, and LPS

E. coli

155

E. coli invading intestinal mucosa and causing necrosis, inflammation --> dysentery

EIEC

156

E.coli producing HL/HS enterotoxins with no invasion or inflammation --> watery diarrhea

ETEC

157

E.coli producing no toxins and flattening villi, preventing absorption --> diarrhea in kids

EPEC

158

E.coli producing Shiga-like toxin, HUS (anemia/thrombocytopenia/ARF) --> bloody, mucoid diarrhea

EHEC

159

Does not ferment sorbitol or possess glucoronidase

EHEC

160

E.coli causing neonatal meningitis

K1 capsule

161

+leuk esterase, nitrite // ferments lactose+glucose // mobile

E. coli

162

Very mucoid colonies and red currant jelly sputum

Klebsiella

163

Nosocomial UTIs, aspiration pneumonia, abscess in lungs/liver, diabetics/alcoholics

Klebsiella

164

Bloody diarrhea in peds, homosexuals, nursing facilities

Shigella

165

Unique binding site on mucosal M cells

Shigella

166

Antibiotics prolong fecal excretion of organism

Salmonella

167

Antibiotics shorten fecal excretion of organism

Salmonella

168

Produce hydrogen sulfite

Salmonella

169

Invades intestinal mucosa and creates lymphocytic response

Salmonella

170

Invades intestinal mucosa and creates PMN infilitration

Shigella

171

Rose spots, fever, headache, diarrhea

S. typhi

172

Remains in gallbladder and causes carrier state

S. typhi

173

Transmitted via M cells in Peyer's patch --> hijacks macrophages and invades reticuloendothelial system

S. typhi

174

Major cause of bloody diarrhea (esp. in kids)

C. jejuni

175

Fecal-oral transmission in chicken, from puppies

C. jejuni

176

Common antecedent to GBS and reactive arthritis

C. jejuni

177

Stool with mucus and epithelial cells

V. cholerae

178

Transmitted from pet feces, contaminated milk, or pork

Y. enterocolitica

179

Mesenteric adenitis mimicking Crohn's

Y. enterocolitica

180

Catalase+, ox+, urease+

H. pylori

181

Infects stomach antrum (prevents somatostatin release)

H. pylori

182

Rx. PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin or metronidazole

H. pylori

183

Water-contaminated with animal urine

Leptospira

184

Flu-like symptoms, jaundice, photophobia with conjunctival suffusion (erythema w/o exudate)

Leptospira

185

Surfers in Hawaii

Leptospira

186

Jaundice, azotemia with liver/kidney dysfunction; fever, hemorrhage, anemia

Weil Disease (icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis)

187

Ixodes tick

Borrelia burgdoferi, Babesia

188

Erythema migrans, Bell's palsy, AV nodal block, monoarthritis+migratory polyarthritis

Borrelia burgdoferi

189

Painless chancre

Primary syphillis

190

Maculopapular rash (palms/soles), condylomata lata, systemic sx

Secondary syphillis

191

Gummas (chronic granulomas), aortitis in thoracic aorta (vasa vasorum destruction), neurosyphillis (tabes dorsalis), Argyll Robertson pupil

Tertiary syphillis

192

Broad-based ataxia, Romberg+, Charcot joint, stroke w/o HTN

Tertiary syphillis

193

Saber shins, saddle nose, CNVIII deafness, Hutchinson teeth, mulberry molars

Congenital syphillis