Flashcards in NATURE L2- Water Geographies Deck (15):
World Health Organisation (2018)
800 million people lack adequate access to water.
2.6 billion people lack access to improved sanitation.
United Nations (2003)
Different sectors compete for water:
1) Agriculture [70%]
2) Industry [22%]
3) Domestic [8%]
The distribution of this in a country reflects the economy.
Water is used as a tool in economic development. Goubert calls this the 'double conquest' of water:
1) The growth of industry
2) The increased focus on investment
World Economic Forum (2016)
Water scarcity is the biggest threat to future development.
The circulation of water is a combination of physical and social processes- the hydro-social cycle.
Water and society cannot be separated.
Mosse (2003, 1)
"The relationship between water and society is as complex an historical, sociological, and regional problem as any that can be imagined"
World Water Council (2010)
In the 20th century, the population had tripled but water consumption has grown 6 fold.
Kooy and Bakker (2008)
In Jakarta, the poorest people lack access to a networked water supply. Instead they must rely on unsafe, informal sources.
"To some conservationists, the Colorado River is the pre-eminent symbol of everything mankind has done wrong"
All hydraulic environments are socio-physical constructions.
Social power becomes manifested through socio-technical systems.
"There is nothing a priori about constructed environments such as dams, irrigation systems, hydraulic infrastructures and so forth"
Increasingly, access to water is being determined by private property rights. This is quickly redefining the ways in which access to and exclusion from water is occurring.
Linton and Budds (2014)
Water is shaped by societal relations, structures and subjectivities.
The concept of the HC was originally formulated to legitimise the work of hydrologists.
HSC= a socio-natural process by which water and society make and remake each other over space and time.
The HSC has been formulated to include society's role in the circulation of water- which is inherent.
Society shapes and is shaped by water, physically and discursively.