Flashcards in NATURE L4- Neoliberal Nature Deck (18):
A) Harvey (2005)
Neoliberalism proposes that human well-being is best advanced by liberating individual entreprenual freedoms.
This is done via free markets, trade and private property rights.
'Accumulation by dispossession'
This came into prominence in the 1980s under the rule of Thatcher and Reagan as a response to the failure of Keynesian policies.
Peck and Tickell (2002)
We should think of neoliberalism "not as a thing" but as "a process"
A) McCarthy and Prudham (2004)
Core principles of neoliberalism:
1) self regulating markets
2) antagonism towards state intervention
3) endorsement of private property rights and commodification
4) Cuts to fiscal and administrative spending
"Neoliberalism is characterised by strong private property rights, free markets and free trade"
Core principles of the Washington Consensus:
1) Fiscal cut backs
2) Redirection of public spending
3) Tax reform
4) Market determined interest rates
5) Competitive exchange rates
Neoliberalism is a way of governing nature
1) The assertion of private property rights over nature
2) Market logistics to manage the bio-physical world
3) The extension of market mechanisms into nature
B) McCarthy and Prudham (2004)
"Neoliberalism is significantly constituted by changing social relations with bio-physical nature"
Processes of neoliberalism:
Double reductionism us happening on a molecular scale:
1) genetic reductionism
2) economic reductionism
Market mechanisms are increasingly being used to govern climate change:
1) Commodification of GHG emissions (Carbon trading)
2) Commercialisation of 'rights to pollute'
Water is increasingly at the frontier of neoliberal investment- this is resulting in the 'cherry picking' of areas to invest in.
Jaffee and Newman (2013)
Bottled water is an example of the commodification of water.
B) Harvey (2005)
Neoliberalism has become a hegemonic discourse and economic policy- it has done this by playing on the ideals of freedom. This was extremely persuasive in the 70s when almost everybody was affected by the crisis of capital accumulation. This especially threatened the economic elite.
Thus, neoliberalism can be understood as either:
1) a utopian project for the re-organisation of capitalism
2) a project to restore the power of the economic elite
C) McCarthy and Prudham (2004)
Neoliberalism generates changing social relations with the biosphere.
Environmentalism offers a source of opposition against neoliberalism. Increased environmental protection was a key success of the Keynesian state.
This is increasing becoming compromised with profits and markets being made the priority.
Environmentalists keep check on neoliberalism HOWEVER they have failed to address the issue of equity.
This has resulted in responses that are uneven- e.g. the disposal of toxic waste.
Governance refers to the "trend away from state-centric forms of social and economic regulation associated with post-Fordist state restructuring".
This has led to non state actors having a say in political decisions regarding the environment.
Regulation theory argues that resource development is deeply contested and conflict ridden (over access, distribution and cultural values assigned to nature)
Urban regime theory seeks to understand how different actors wield power through institutions to shape development policies.
The enclosure of the commons is a key concern of UPE
Bio-physical properties of natural resources impact and shape the ways in which they are governed.
For example, water is an uncooperative commodity due to its physical properties.