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Flashcards in Neck Deck (8)
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1

What lies superficial to the deep neck flexors?

????

2

What and where are the vascular and neural structures located in the neck?

Vascular:
The subclavian artery and common carotid arteries are both branches of the brachiocephalic trunk.

Common carotid:
Ascends in the neck, giving off no branches. Common divides into internal and external. Internal supplies the internal cranium. External gives of branches in neck to supply thyroid, pharynx, tongue, face and external head. Before its bifurcation is the expansion of the carotid sinus which contains pressure receptors to monitor blood pressure. The carotid body is found at the bifurcation – it monitors blood oxygen & CO2 levels and is supplied by CNIX & X. The external carotid supplies the neck and face.

Subclavian arteries:
Begin posterior to the SC joints, ascend through the superior thoracic aperture to enter the root of the neck. The apex is between the posterior and anterior scalenes; It then arches over the lateral border of the 1st rib to enter the upper extremity.

- Vertebral artery branches off and ascends between longus and scalenes.

- The thyrocervical trunk, internal thoracic artery and costocervical trunk are also branches of the subclavian.

Neural:
Cervical Plexus:
The cervical plexus is formed by the anterior rami of C2-4 posterior to the SCM in the prevertebral fascia.
Nerves from this plexus supply the diaphragm, most of the hyoid muscles and the skin over the anterior and lateral neck, clavicle and shoulder to rib 2.
Note that there are 8 cervical nerve roots. The C1 emerges between the occiput and atlas. C8 emerges between C7 and T1.

Brachial Plexus:
Brachial plexus formed by the anterior rami of C5 – T1 forms between the anterior and middle scalenes and pass through the root of the neck into the upper extremity.

SNS:
Sympathetic nerves pass through the root of the neck.
Sympathetic trunk lies anterior to the longus muscles in the carotid sheath. Superior (C2), middle (C6) and inferior (C7) cervial ganglia form part of the trunk. The inferior ganglion frequently combines with the first thoracic ganglion as the stellate ganglion anterior to the neck of rib 1 and TP of C7.
The paraspinal sympathetic trunk contains superior, middle and inferior cervical ganglia. Small nociceptive fibers travel with the sympathetics and synapse in the upper thoracic cord. Nociceptive input from the cervical spine can cause mm-sk change in upper thoracic spine and ribs.

3

What is IVF stenosis?

narrowing of the intervertebral foramen of which the mixed spinal nerves exit through???

can be due to osteophyte growth
????

4

What are the types of herniations in the head?

?????? check path

5

Describe the dural function and attachments?

Dura has 2 layers:
Outer periosteal layer:
- is formed by the periosteium of the inner calvaria and adheres tightly to the inner aspect of the cranium.
- is most adherent to the sutures and cranial base
Inner meningeal layer:
- continuous with the spinal dura

Spaces:
Epidural: between the skull and the dura
- pathological
Subdural: between the dura and arachnoud mater
- pathological
Subarachnoid: beneath the arachnoid in the subarachnoid space.
- anatomical

Major unfolds:
Falx cerebri
Falx cerebelli
Tentorium cerebelli
Diaphragm sellae

6

What is canal stenosis?

Narrowing of the spinal canal of which the spinal cord funs through
can by myelopathy, osteophytic growth

7

What is the nerve supply to the dura?

Above the tent - Trigeminal nerve
Below the tent - spinal ganglia of C2 and C3

8

What are the pain sensitive structures in the head

The dura is the structure that sends pain signals, brain tissue is not innervated with nociceptors.