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Flashcards in Nervous System 2- Organisation Deck (60):
1

What is innervation

The nerve supply of

2

What does a motor neurone do

Cause movement

3

What does a sensory neurone do

Responds to a stimulus

4

What does afferent mean

Towards

5

What does efferent mean

Away from

6

What does the somatic nervous system do

Controls the contraction of skeletal muscles of the body

7

What are somatic motorneurones

Efferent neurones sending nerve impulses (action potentials) which cause muscle contractions

8

What is voluntary muscle action

Intentional

9

Why is involuntary muscle action

Unintentional (e.g. postural muscles)

10

Muscle actions controlled by the somatic nervous system are either

Sterotyped or non-stereotyped

11

What are stereotyped muscle actions

Simple, repetitive

12

What are non-stereotyped muscle actions

Complex and individual to each person

13

What exerts control over motor neurones

The CNS

14

What 2 functional divisions is the autonomic nervous system made up of

Parasympathetic and sympathetic

15

What is the parasympathetic nervous system

'rest and digest'

16

What is the sympathetic nervous system

'fight or flight'

17

What are the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the eye

Sympathetic = dilates pupil. Parasympathetic = contracts pupil

18

What are the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the tear glands

Sympathetic= no action. Parasympathetic = stimulates tear secretion

19

What are the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the heart

Sympathetic = speeds up heart rate. Parasympathetic = slows down heart rate

20

What are the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the lungs

Sympathetic = dilates bronchi. Parasympathetic = constricts bronchi

21

What are the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the intestine

Sympathetic = inhibits peristalsis. Parasympathetic = stimulates peristalsis

22

What are the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the bladder

Sympathetic = inhibits urination. Parasympathetic = stimulates urination

23

What are the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the liver

Sympathetic = stimulates glucose production. Parasympathetic = stimulates bile production

24

What exerts control over the autonomic motor neurones

The central nervous system

25

What happens in the control the ANS has on the CNS is damaged

A rapid rise in blood pressure that can causes a stroke or even be fatal

26

What are the 4 main parts of the CNS

1. Cerebral hemisphere 2. Cerebellum 3. Brainstem 4. Spinal chord

27

What is the name of the membranes that surround the entire nervous system

Meninges

28

What is the space between the meninges and CNS filled with

Cerebro spinal fluid

29

What is the function of cerebro spinal fluid

To allow the brain to float, protecting the brain physically. To maintain a stable chemical environment. Allowing the brain to float means it is weightless. Brain tissue is very soft so blood can only flow if the brain is weightless

30

What are the 4 main parts of the cerebral hemisphere

1. Cerebral cortex 2. Motor nuclei 3. Thalamus 4. Hypothalamus

31

Describe the cerebral cortex

The sensory region where pathways end

32

Describe the motor nuclei

They control movement of messages down the spinal chord

33

Describe the thalamus

It is a big area made up of individual neurones lumped together

34

Describe the hypothalamus

A collection of neurones underneath the thalamus with 2 functions: 1. controlling the endocrine system 2. Controlling the ANS

35

What are the 3 main parts of the brainstem

1. Midbrain 2. Pons 3. Medulla

36

Describe the midbrain

Connected to the cerebral hemisphere

37

Describe the pons

Major connections with the cerebellum

38

Describe the medulla

Connected to the spinal chord, has motor and sensory autonomic roles

39

Describe the cerebellum

It is called the 'little brain' and is involved in the co-ordination of motor function and balance

40

What is the CNS divided into

Grey and white matter

41

What is grey matter in the CNS

Neurone cell bodies grouped into nuclei

42

What is white matter in the CNS

Myelinated axons which form tracts

43

What is the spinal chord protected by

The vertebral column (spine)

44

Where are the somatic and autonomic motor neurones of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) located

In the spinal chord

45

What is the PNS connected to and what is is controlled by

Connected to and controlled by the CNS

46

What does the PNS control

The body from the neck down

47

What two parts is a spinal flex arc composed of

Dorsal root and ventral root

48

Describe the position and function of the dorsal root

Posterior (back) and function is sensory

49

Describe the position and function of a ventral root

Anterior (front) and function is motor

50

What is a spinal chord made up of

Repeating units of roots

51

Which ordinary sensations can be detected by a spinal relfex arc

Touch, pressure, pain, temperature

52

What are the 4 functional components of a spinal nerve

GSE (general sensory efferent) GVE (general visceral efferent) GVA (general visceral afferent) GSA (general sensory afferent)

53

What does the general sensory efferent (GSE) do

Motor neurones -> skeletal muscles. Somatic

54

What does the general sensory afferent (GSA) do

Discriminative touch, pain, temp from skin, joints, muscle. Somatic

55

What does the general visceral efferent (GVE) do

Motor neurone -> viscera. Visceral

56

What does the general visceral afferent (GVA) do

Detects sensation in the viscera

57

What are the 5 special sense

1. Vision 2. Hearing 3. Smell 4. Taste 5. Balance

58

What are the special senses controlled by

Cranial nerves

59

What two types on neurones make up the peripheral nervous system

Somatic and visceral

60

Where are the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal chord located