Physiology of Pregnancy Flashcards Preview

BI0005 > Physiology of Pregnancy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology of Pregnancy Deck (85):
1

What are the components of the female reproductive system

2 ovaries 2 fallopian (uterine) tubes Uterus

2

What are the functions of an ovary

To produce hormones, to develop the ova

3

What are the functions of a fallopian tube

Connects ovaries to the uterus, site of fertilisation

4

What are the functions of the uterus

Cavity, site of implantation of fertilised ovum, where the foetus develops

5

What are the two components of the uterus

1. A cavity lined with epithelial cells (endometrium) 2. An underlying muscle layer (myometrium)

6

What are the functions of the endometrium

It changes each month to receive a fertilised egg, if fertilisation occurs it develops into a placenta

7

What is the function of the myometrium

It is required for muscular contractions to give birth

8

What are the two types of epithelial cells in the fallopian tubes

Ciliated and secretory cells

9

What is the function of ciliated epithelial cells in the fallopian tubes

They have hairs that waft the ova along the tube towards the uterus

10

What is the function of secretory epithelial cells in the fallopian tubes

They produce mucus which lubricates the fallopian tubes and keeps them hydrated

11

What is the function of the muscle layer of the fallopian tubes

To contract in peristaltic movement to propel the ova and sperm and then fertilised egg

12

What is the developmental process of sperm

Formed in testes, mature as it passes through a series of ducts in the scrotum, final maturation occurs in the female reproductive tract

13

What is the developmental process of the ovum

Produced in the ovary, oogenesis: occurs in multiple phases, start in utero but only completes if fertilisation occurs

14

What two cycles make up the female reproductive cycle

Uterine cycle and Ovarian cycle

15

What is a hormone

A chemical released from an endocrine gland into the blood that causes a reaction often by another organ

16

What is the purpose of the female reproductive cycle

To release a mature ovum and to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilised ovum

17

Which stages make up the uterine cycle

1. Menstruation 2. Proliferative phase 3. Secretory phase

18

Which stages make up the ovarian cycle

1. Follicular phase 2. Ovulation 3. Luteal phase

19

What is the follicular phase

Development and expansion of the follicular cells

20

What is ovulation

The release of an ovum

21

What is the luteal phase

Secretion of progesterone

22

Summarise the ovarian cycle

1. Release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 2. Stimulates follicle growth 3. At ovulation, follicle breaks open to release ovum 4. Ruptures follicle develops into a corpus luteum

23

What is oogenesis

Process of formation of female gametes (ova)

24

What is oogonia

Eggs form during early foetal development and undergo mitosis

25

What are primary oocytes

Division of early eggs gives millions of eggs, most die without further development, the remainder develop into primordial oocytes (one is released every month)

26

Which hormones are involved in the follicular phase and what do they do

LH and FSH stimulate the growth of follicules

27

What does LH stand for

Luteinising hormone

28

What does FSH stand for

Follicle stimulating hormone

29

Which hormones are involved in the ovulation and what do they do

A surge in LH stimulates the release of the ovum. Oestrogen levels increase resulting in ovulation

30

Which hormone is secreted by the follicles

Oestrogen

31

Which hormones are involved in the luteal phase and what do they do

LH transforms an empty follicle to form a corpus luteum. Oestrogen and progesterone are secreted

32

Which hormones are secreted by the corpus luteum

Oestrogen and progesterone

33

Which phase of the uterine cycle does the follicular phase relate to

The proliferative phase

34

Which phase of the uterine cycle does the luteal phase relate to

The secretory phase

35

What happens in the proliferative phase

Oestrogen stimulates the thickening of the endometrium (part of the uterus preparing for implantation)

36

What happens in the secretory phase

The corpus luteum maintains the development of endometrium (as it secretes hormones) and the endometrial glands secrete a nutrient fluid (as implantation occurs to feed to embryo)

37

What happens in the menstrual phase

Loss of the corpus luteum and ovarian hormones occurs (as levels of LH fall), disintegration of the endometrium occurs and menstrual (blood) flow occurs.

38

How long after ovulation does fertilisation occur

12-24 hours after

39

How long is an oocyte viable for

24 hours

40

How many sperm enter the vagina

300 million

41

How many sperm reach the cervix

60 million

42

How many sperm pass through the cervix

6 million

43

How many sperm reach the fallopian tubes

100

44

What is capacitation

The removal of glycoprotein from the plasma membrane around the surface of the head of the sperm

45

How long do sperm have to be in the female reproductive system until they are fertile

7 hours in order to be able to undergo capacitation

46

Describe the 5 stages of fertilisation

1. Interaction of sperm with the outer region of the egg 2. Release of enzymes from the sperm head 3. Enzymes digest a path through the outer oocyte 4. Enzymes interact with the outer membrane of the oocyte 5. The sperm moves into the egg

47

What happens on day 1 of the first week

Ovulation and formation of a secondary oocyte

48

What happens on day 2 of the first week

A fertilized ovum is formed via fertilisation and meiosis II

49

What happens on day 3 of the first week

Fusion of pronuclei produces a zygote

50

What happens on 4 of the first week

A zygote is formed

51

What happens on day 5 of the first week

Cleavage forms a morula

52

What happens on day 6 of the first week

Differentiation forms a blastocyst

53

What happens on day 7 of the first week

Hatching occurs

54

When does implantation occur

On day 8 after differentiation

55

How long is pregnancy from ovulation

266 days (38 weeks)

56

How long is pregnancy from last menstrual period

280 days (40 weeks)

57

What does the first trimester consist of

Conception, implantation, development of the placenta and organogenesis

58

When are all organs in place by

Week 8, they are not nature but they are present

59

When does the heart start to beat

Week 4

60

When is it known as an embryo

From implantation to week 8

61

When is it known as a foetus

When all organs are formed, so from week 8

62

What does the placenta develop from

The mother and embryo

63

What does the mother contribute to the placenta

The endometrium if the uterus

64

What does the embryo contribute to the placenta

Trophoblast cells which form the villi Foetal blood supply is located within the villi

65

What are the 6 functions of the placenta

1. Synthesis of hormones 2. Respiratory gas exchange 3. Nutrient transfer 4. Waste product removal 5. Heat transfer- ensures the foetus remains at a constant temperature 6. Protection of the foetus Some Girls Nuke Women Hair Perfume

66

What is transferred from mother to foetus by the placenta

Oxygen, nutrients, hormones and antibodies

67

What is transferred from foetus to mother by the placenta

CO2, other metabolic waste, hormones and water

68

What happens during the second trimester of pregnancy

The foetus grows to 30cm and is very active. The uterus has to cope with the needs of the growing foetus

69

What happens during the third trimester of pregnancy

1. Growth of the foetus as it reaches 3-4kg in weight and 50cm in length 2. Foetal activity decreases due to a lack of space 3. Labour

70

What changes happen to the cardiovascular system during preganacy

1. Increased blood volume and blood cells 2. Increased cardiac output 3. Increased blood flow to organs

71

What does increased blood volume and blood cells do

To make sure there is sufficient blood going to the placenta

72

What does increased cardiac output do

Push more blood around the body

73

Where is blood flow increased to and why

1. To the kidneys for waste disposal 2. To the uterus as it takes substances to and from the placenta 3. To the skin for heat loss 4. To the breasts for mammary development to prepare for lactation

74

What changes happen to the respiratory system during pregnancy

1. An increase in oxygen taken into the lungs 2. An increase in oxygen passing across the alveoli 3. Rapid removal of CO2 The above combined ensures sufficient oxygen for the foetus

75

What changes happen to the gastrointestinal system during pregnancy

1. An increase in food intake 2. Slow transit of food through the GI tract 3. Increased absorption from the GI tract Results in ensuring there is a good nutrient supply

76

What changes happen to metabolic function during pregnancy

1. Reducing mother's dependence on glucose 2. Increasing fat breakdown 3. Inhibiting amino acid breakdown Results in increased waste removal and retention of salt and water

77

What is the purpose of maternal adaptations

To ensure that the foetus gets oxygen and nutrients that waste is removed

78

Why is development of the ovum correlated with preparation of the endometrium

So that the endometrium is ready to receive the fertilised egg

79

What do all stages of pregnancy require

The correct balance of hormones

80

What is the purpose of placenta development

To provide a good exchange system between mother and foetus

81

Describe the adaptations to pregnancy

Adaptation

 

82

Describe the stages of the first week of pregnancy

83

Summarise the ovarian cycle

84

Describe the structure of an ovary

85

Describe a placenta