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Flashcards in Newborn Child Deck (23):

Why are changes at birth required

In the foetus some organs are not fully functional, as a result some changes are required at birth to give fully functional organs


Describe foetal lungs

They are collapsed or partially filled


When is a lung surfactant produced by the foetus

At six months


Whilst in utero what, in terms of the respiratory system, is the foetus dependent on the mother for

Oxygen supply and removal of carbon dioxide


What happens to the respiratory system at birth

Oxygen supply ceases, carbon dioxide accumulates, the respiratory centre in the brain is stimulated


What does stimulation of the respiratory centre in a baby at birth result in

The baby drawing its first breath


What are 3 important things to note in terms of the baby's first breath

1. Unusually deep
2. Inflates the lungs
3. The surfactant prevents the collapse of alveoli


What is the respiration rate of a newborn baby

45 breaths per minute


Why are the adaptations in foetal circulation present

In order to counteract the lack of lung function and to incorporate the fact that the foetus receives blood from the mother


What is the function of the shunts in foetal circulation

To by-pass blood


What 3 shunts are present in the foetal circulatory system

One in the heart
One ensures blood from the mother by-passes the liver and goes straight to the heart.
One prevents too much blood going to the collapsed lung


Why do newborns dehydrate easily

They are not good at concentrating urine


What happens to renal function once a baby is born

Babies have sole responsibility for maintaining fluid balance and waste disposal. However this takes a few years to fully mature


What are the feature of the foetal GI tract

There is limited secretion of enzymes and hormones


What changes does this first milk cause in a newborn

Rapid increase in gut size and stimulation of digestive juices and motility


Why do newborns use fat and glycogen stores

Because it takes a few days to establish the necessary components of the GI tract


Describe the characteristics of the environment in the mother's uterus

Warm, moist and constant


Why can newborns lose heat easily

They have a large surface area relative to volume


What do babies have to help control heat changes

Brown adipose tissue


What is brown adipose tissue

Extra brown fat


How much brown adipose tissue are babies born with

This makes it a high proportion of their body mass


What does brown adipose fat do

Generate heat


What is the advantage of babies being well vascularised

Heat generated by brown adipose tissue can be spread to the rest of the body