Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Fundies First Module--First Exam > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (70):
1

neurons need

second to second supply of O2 and glucose--very limited anaerobic capacity

2

Sodium cell potential

+65 mv

3

Parkinsonism symptomology

athetosis (slow, writhing, convoluted, involluntary movements), chorea, pill rolling, festinating gate

4

muscle reflex has

complimentary IPSP on opposing muscle (i.e. bicep vs tricep)

5

Basal Ganglia composed of

Striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nuclei

6

striatum composed of / pathology

caudate nucleus , putaman (chorea), fundus strati

7

primary brain tumors caused from

glia due to ability to divide vs. neurons

8

globus pallidus pathology

athetosis

9

substantia nigra pathology

Parkinson's

10

important for hippocampal function

thymine--Wernicke's encephalopathy (unable to make new memories)

11

all sensory input except sight goes through

thalamus

12

hypothalamus involved in

feelings of hunger/thirst, pain, pleasure, major limbic center (rage, tranquility, pleasure, fear) temp control,

13

Hypothalamus controls

pituitary

14

Midbrain controls

eye movement, auditory, visual systems--think of how ancient the function is

15

medulla/ mylencephalon controls

autonomic center, coordinates swallowing, coughing

16

*. Cerebellar damage

errors in RATE, RANGE, FORCE, and DIRECTION

17

damage to cerebellum

lack of coordination (ataxia), intention tremors

18

normal ECF K+ levels

4 meq/l

19

tremor

rhythmic movement of extremity

20

Dangerous ECF K+ levels indicative of widespread cell lysis

7-8 meq/l

21

intention tremor indicative of

cerebellar lesion vs. resting tremor

22

cells lining ventricles forming CSF

ependymal cells --> produce 500 ml/day
1 of the 4 neuroglia of CNS

23

CSF found in

ventricles (lateral, 3rd, 4th), cerebral canal, & central canal/ subarachnoid space of SC

24

CSF sampled btwn

3rd and 4th lumbar vert

25

Things that are _____ and _____ have trouble getting past BBB

large and charged

26

children have _____ BBB

incomplete--thus brain infection higher probability--low threshold for infant lumbar puncture

27

BBB is highly permeable to

H2O, CO2, O2, lipids, non-polar substances

28

yellow/ green from bruise is

billiruben--can't cross adult BBB

29

billiruben in infant brain due to V BBB

Kernicterus, Phenylketonuria (post-natal light therapy used to break down billiruben)

30

Major commissure of neocortex

corpus callosum

31

CT dark =

fluid

32

biconvex hematoma

epidural

33

crescent moon shaped hematoma

subdural

34

spinal nerves

31 pairs

35

impending uncal herniation sign

pupil dilation-- pressure puts traction against CN III cutting of parasympathetic innervation thus leaving only sympathetic pupillary tone

36

motor nerve leaving SC to periphery

lower motor neuron

37

motor neuron from motor cortex descending SC

upper motor neuron

38

dorsal horn/ root

sensory/ afferent

39

carry cold, pressure, and acute pain

A delta fibers -- myelinated

40

transmit steady, dull, constant pain

C fibers -- unmyelinated

41

apex of dorsal horn--for sensory modulation

substantia gelatinosa--act as gates (frequency and transmission of signals)

42

lower motor neuron cell bodies in

ventral/ anterior horn of SC

43

Sensory modulation happens at _____ and _______

1. level of spinal cord--SG and 2. centrally--in thalamus

44

Sensory neurons named

ex. first order, second order, third order, etc.
sense organ to SC: first order sensory neuron
spinothalamic nerve: second order sensory neuron
thalamocortical nerve: third order sensory neuron

45

pain sensation

free nerve ending-- C fiber-- unmyalenated

46

perception of pressure to skin

mechanoreceptors
1. pacinian corpuscles--
2. baroreceptors

47

pain and temperature (spinothelamic tract) neurons decussate at

the level of the SC that they enter

48

vibration neurons decussate at (lemniscal tract)

level of medulla -- clinically pertinent

49

upper motor neurons decussate at

pyramids of medulla--for destinations bellow the bulbar (medulla)

50

partial transection of spinal cord

Brown-Sequard syndrome--pain and temp lost from opposite side and vibration from same side as lesion

51

craniobulbar

cranial nerves (bulbar=medulla)

52

motor fibers aka

Alpha fibers (myelenated)

53

stretch reflex

self contained in SC- (watch videos)
antagonist muscle inhibited

54

Golgi tendon organ (video)

located in muscle tendon (not meant to stretch)--self contained in SC
1. signal sent to SC afferent
2. interneurons transmit
3. efferent signals sent to corresponding muscle inhibiting further contration (makes muscle flaccid)
4. efferent signal sent to antagonist muscle

55

tends to dampen muscle spindle stretch reflex

upper motor neuron--thus when upper motor neuron lesion DTR's will be more extreme

56

hyporreflexive upon reflex hammer test

possible lower motor neuron lesion

57

hyperreflexive upon reflex hammer test

possible upper motor neuron lesion

58

when looking at reflexes

compare side to side &
top to bottom

59

system containing all sub-components of motor system

pyramidal system

60

principal component of pyramidal system

corticospinal tract

61

* pyramidal tract pathology (UMN) -know-

weakness, spasticity, hyperactive DTR's , Babinski sign

62

great toe extension when sole of foot is stimulated

babinski sign vs flexion normally

63

inability to perform volitional movements rapidly and with ease.

akinesisa (extrapyramidal system dysfunction), mask-like affect

64

basal ganglia part of / disfunction?

extrapyramidal system-- disfunction--> movement disorder

65

* extra pyramidal disorder symptoms

akinesisa, mask, ridgidity (lead-pipe, cog-wheel), resting-tremor (clears with intentional movement), pill rolling, athetosis, chorea

66

sinuous snake-like involuntary movements

athetosis

67

NONREPETETIVE, jerky, involuntary movements

chorea

68

famous for extrapyramidal side effects

antipsychotics (neuroleptics)

69

With spasticity-- neuronal death--as from infantile or stroke anoxia is random--is _______, and ______ motor neurons will win out

random, and intact

70

substantia gelatinosum gated modulation in dorsal horn

put ice on smashed finger-- 50% of cold and 50% of pain carried = sensory modulation