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Flashcards in Respiratory 1 Deck (186):
1

respiratory primary function

O2 from atmosphere to alveoli--> all parts of body CO2 from blood --> atmosphere

2

Secondary respiratory functions: _____ and ______

1. first responder in acid-base disorders 2. supports speech, swallowing, and other bodily activities

3

meatuses

spaces btwn turbinates

4

turbinates

visible structures

5

Respiration steps:

1. ventilation: O2 to capillaries 2. diffusion: O2 diffusion--CO2 too lungs 3. perfusion: O2 circulated to tissue

6

Upper airway anatomy

1. nasopharynx 2. oropharynx 3. hypopharynx

7

make us sneeze

iritant receptors

8

vestibule =

false vocal cords (larynx)

9

larynx:

connector

10

laryngeal prominence on

thyroid cartilage

11

cartilages of larynx top-bottom

thyroid, cricoid, and tracheal cartilages

12

tracheal cartilage function

prevent collapse during inspiration and swallowing

13

lungs

thright (superior, middle, inferior) 2left (superior, inferior)

14

mediastium structure?

no--its a space--contains tissues and organs besides lungs and pleurae

15

pleural sac division

visceral (stuck to lungs) and parietal (stuck to ribs) surfaces--negative pressure in space

16

inspiration muscles

external intercostal muscles--raise sternum and rib cage

17

quiet inhilation muscles

passive recoil of lungs

18

active breathing muscles

internal intercostal muscles

19

accessory muscles of inspiration

sternoclaidomastoid scalenus diaphragm (largest muscle of inspiration)

20

pleurae

closed system--negative preasure (-5 atmospheres) --contiguous tissue layer--makes fluid

21

lungs attached to

bronchi and pleurae--no bony connections

22

entrance to lungs--small depression

hilum--blood vessels and nerves also enter here

23

inferior boundary of mediustinum

diaphragm

24

empties into R atrium

vena cava coronary circulation i.e. MIXED venous return

25

increase in the pressure of the pulmonary artery--above 25 mmHg

pulmonary hypertension

26

beginning of lower airway

trachea

27

division of trachea

2 primary bronchi --> secondary bronchi --> bronchiole --> tertiary bronchi

28

split of trachea at:

carina--sensitive irritant receptors-->cough

29

which bronchi more vertical

right -- thus things get lodged when inhaled

30

how many divisions of bronchi before bronchioli

16--benefits: ^ cross-sectional space (with each division), lower velocity -->time for difusion

31

divisions of airway from bronchi

lobar bronchi-->segmental bronchi-->sub-segmental bronchi-->X16 divisions

32

bronchial walls made of

1. epithelial layer (inside) a. goblet cells--mucus trap particles b. cilia--"beat" particles upward c. phagocytes/macrophages--destroy particles 2. smooth muscle layer--multinucleated--only constriction 3. connective tissue layer (outside)--cartilage layers tapper as we get deeper in turn to collagen

33

Bronchioles layers

1. epithelial layer (supported by connective tissue) a. no goblets or cartilage

34

last segment of conduction

terminal bronchioles

35

irritant receptors in

nares, oro/nasopharynx, trachea, carina, bronchioles

36

Alveoli number in adulthood

300 million

37

bronchioles -->

terminal bronchioles (no cartilage) --> respiratory bronchioles (begin to have alveoli) --> alveolar ducts and sacs

38

whole respirator segment (respiratory bronchioles + alveola)

acinus

39

disease that attacks connective tissue of respiratory bronchioles

emphysema

40

capillaries are _______ to alveolar septa--don't go inside

integral -- site of gas exchange

41

basement membrane of capillary fused to

basement membrane of alveoli

42

O2 enter ______ _______ ________ in the pulmonary capillaries

mixed venous blood

43

alveolar sac tissue

1. type 1 cell (maintain sturcture) 2. type 2 cell (make surfactant) 3. thin basement membran 4. macrophages

44

inter septa pores for ventilation and ditribution

pores of Kohn--allows passage of air btwn alveolar sacs

45

alveoli at birth

25 million

46

alveoli

no muscle, .5 micrometers thick, lymph ducts run nearby

47

lymph leaves lungs at

hylum

48

Pulmonary circulation main function

bring venous blood from SVC and IVC into contact with alveoli for gas exchange

49

Pulmonary circulation filter ______ and ______, preventing access to cerebral and renal vessels

thrombi (clot) and emboli (smaller particle)

50

pulmonary circulation holds _____% of circulating blood

10%-- mobilized when needed

51

_____ pulmonary capillaries to each alveoli

1000

52

each artery traces back to the _________ _______

pulmonary arteries

53

each capillary bed traces back to an ____/______

arteriole/bronchiole

54

each bronchus/ bronchioles has its own ______

artery

55

each pulmonary vein drains ______, random organizaiton

capilaries--no valves

56

blood in the pulmonary capillaries pick up ___ from the alveoli and drop off ____ into the alveoli and the ____/______ ______

O2, CO2, alveolar/capillary interface

57

oxygenated blood travels to ____ ______ through ______ ______

left atrium pulmonary veins

58

bronchial circulation:

1. no gas exchange 2. warms, moistens air 3. nourishes airway

59

neurochemical control of resp

DRG--dorsal respiratory group (medulla)

60

* DRG functions

dorsal respiratory group 1. sets automatic rhythm 2. efferent impulese to DIAPHRAGM 3. receives info from chmoreceptors

61

VRG

ventral respiratory group (medulla)

62

lung receptor types

1. irritant: cough--in epithelium 2. stretch receptors- in smooth muscle of airway--stim decreased resp rate and vol 3. J--in alveolar septa near capillaries--stimulates rapid shallow breathing

63

DRG

inspiration

64

VRG

inspiration/exhilation -- not as active

65

central chemoreceptor

changes in CO2--crosses BBB easily--> senses H+ rise --> ^respiration

66

* VRG

*

67

all have smooth muscle except

alveoli--thus no stretch receptors

68

ANS control of respiration

dual control

69

parasympathetic stimulation

of cholinergic receptors leading to bronchoconstriction--controls airway system

70

sympathetic fibers

leave cervical and upper thoracic ganglia--stimulate bronchodilation

71

central chemoreceptors

indirect monitoring of changes in pH (CSF), CO2, O2. Not good in hyperventilation

72

peripheral chemoreceptors

aorta, carotid bodies, near BARORECEPTORS. sensitive to PaO2 in blood.

73

peripheral chemoreceptors stimulate_____ ______. Primaries if Central chemoreceptors become desensitized

respiratory drive

74

lung receptors that stimulate rapid shallow breathing--seen in pulm edema, emboli, pneumonia

J type

75

multi-unit smooth muscles

each cell innervated independently--no need for many gap junctions

76

example of multi-unit smooth muscle

vascular smooth muscle, airway muscles, piloerector, ciliary muscles,

77

single-unit smooth muscles

separate muscles behave as single unit--lots of gap junctions--usually activated by spontanious depolarization

78

examples of single-unit smooth muscles

GI tract, visceral organs

79

lung receptor that increases ventilatory rate

irritant receptors

80

lung receptor that decreases respiratory rate and volume

stretch receptors

81

diphragm can be placed on length-tension curve and is usually active on ________ and passive on ________

inhalation exhalation (can be used to forcefully exhale)

82

lungs recoil _____

inward

83

lungs resist inflation, requiring

muscular force to inflate

84

loss of recoil of lungs=

more compiance

85

lung stiffness =

decreased compliance

86

change in _______ needed to drive ______ into alveoli

pressure ATM (atmosphere)

87

pleura are a ______ ________--gives a continual slight suction

closed environment constant negative pressure (-5)

88

Upon inspiration, pleural pressure becomes ____ negative

more -- pressure transmitted to alveoli

89

Alveolar pressure

-1 on inspiration +1 on expiration ATM at 0 normally

90

positive lung pressure

expands

91

negative lung pressure

compresses

92

goal of respiration is to (transpulmonary pressure)

overcome natural recoil of lungs

93

lung resting pressure: pleural pressure:

0 -5

94

primary factors of airway resistance

1. length 2. radius 3. cross sectional area

95

airway resistance secondary factors: ______, _______, _____ of the GAS

1. density 2. viscosity 3. velocity

96

test measuring airway resistance

pulmonary function test

97

too much acid in body

acidosis--opposite of alkalosis

98

sensory receptor that transduces chemical signals into AP's

chemoreceptor

99

symp: sputum production, shortness of breath, productive cough

COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

100

projections from eukaryotic cells

cilia

101

lodging of blood clot, fat globule, gas bubble in blood stream

embolism

102

disease of breakdown of lung tissue leading to poor airflow

emphysema aka COPD

103

thin layer of cells that lines interior of blood and lymph vessels

endothelium

104

formation of excess fibrous connective tissue within organ in a reparative or reactive process

fibrosis

105

retroperetoneal structure running on the right side of the vertebral column formed by joining of the joining of the L/R common illiac veins

inferior vena cava

106

highly specialized cells--skilled in the removal of dead or dying cells and cellular debris

macrophage

107

process of laying down new bone

ossification

108

in mixtures of gases, the hypothetical of one individual gas

partial pressure

109

congenital disorder in which ductus arteriosus (connection btwn pulm artery and aorta) doesn't close

patent ductus arteriosus

110

process of body delivering blood to capillary beds

perfusion

111

cells that ingest foreign substances

phagocytes

112

nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

pharyngo-

113

potential space between the two pleura

pleural space

114

abnormal collection of gas and air in the pleural space--like pleural effusion, it may obstruct breathing

pneumothorax

115

hole or passage allowing fluid to flow from one part of body to another

shunt

116

compound that lowers the surface tension btwn 2 liquids or liquid and solid

surfactant

117

final product of blood coagulation

thrombus

118

tracheostomy is the surgery _________ is the hole

tracheotomy

119

movement of air btwn the environment and the lungs

ventilation

120

measure of the resistance of a fluid to gradual deformation

viscosity

121

with GREATER VOLUME, lung tissue exerts _____ ______

radial traction

122

with smaller volumes, lungs exert less _____, more _____

traction resistance

123

Lungs: parasympathetic cholinergic -->

contract

124

lungs: sympathetic adrenergic -->

dilate

125

higher viscosity of air =

higher resistance

126

lower viscosity of air =

lower resistance

127

Law of La Place--alveolar surface tension

decreasing radius = ^ surface tension = ^ pressure

128

_______ reverses Law of La Place

surfactant (type II cells)

129

as alveolus grow smaller, surface tension ________

decreases--maintaining stability of alveoli at ^ and low volumes

130

in alveoli O2 in

CO2 out

131

which is higher: partial pressure of O2 in alveoli PAO2 or O2 pressure of venous mixed blood?

PaO2 (104 mmHg) vs PO2 (40 mmHg)

132

pressure gradiant diffuses O2 into ______

capillary from alveoli --> RBC

133

O2 binds _____ and _____ to HgB

lossely and reversibly

134

enhanced oxygenation of blood when

pH more acidic, ^ CO2 concentration, blood temp,

135

Bohr effect

enhanced oxygenation of blood enhanced release of O2 to tissues

136

diffusion continues until _____ and ______ equilibrate

PaO2 and PAO2

137

CO2 diffuses quickly across ______ ______ into _____

pressure gradient blood

138

O2 and CO2 attach to

hemoglobin

139

more CO2 bound to HgB when

no O2 bound to HgB

140

Haldane effect

drop in SaO2 (O2 saturation) facilitates carrying of CO2 to lungs

141

CO2 buildup in tissue--not diffuse to lungs

respiratory acidosis--lowered pH

142

lung elasticity ________ as we AGE.

diminishes--lungs shrink, may develop a NEGATIVE PRESSURE and may collapse

143

Fibrosis--scarring of lungs makes lungs less _______

compliant--lower volume

144

fluid accumulation in alveoli sacs--decreased lung compliance

pulmonary edema

145

obesity causes _____ ____

decreased compliance--lower functional residual capacity FRC

146

_________, __________, and _________ decrease radius and cross sectional area of airway --> ^ resistance --> difficult ventilation

swelling, mucous, bronchospasm

147

premature babies no surfactant --> no O2 to RBC -->hypoxemia

hyaline membrane disease

148

_______ _________ binds tenaciously to hG displacing O2

carbon monoxide (poisoning) O2 also doesn't release--coma before any warning signs

149

CCC ParasympathetiC

Cholinergic fibers Constrict airway

150

symp

parasymp

bronchodilation

bronchoconstricion (controller)

 

151

PaO2

PAO2

arterial pressure

alveolar pressure

152

initiates shallow breathing during  ______, ________,and _________ 

edema, pneumonia, XXXX

J receptor

153

154

mechanical ventilation depends on chest wall ______

recoil--chest wll has outward pressure (will spring open if chopped)

155

on exhilation diaphragm is

longer--relaxed--extended superiorly into thorax

156

respirator center that innervates larynx and vocal cords

VRG 

ventral respiratory group

157

depress rib cage 

internal intercostals, rectus abdominis

158

excessory muscles of expiration

transvers abdominis, rectus adbominis, internal/external obliques

159

respiratory nucleus that receiuves info from chemoreceptors

DRG

160

position used to relax abdominal caviity allowing easier breathing

tripod manuever--allows diaphragm to come to full length --> bigger breath 

161

chest wants to go ____, lungs want to go ______ thus_____ _____

out, in

negative pressure

162

compliance aka distensibility reciprocal of ______

recoil

163

increased compliance =

loss of recoil (as from age or scarring)

164

pulmonary edema leads to 

decreased lung compliance-->less compliant alveola --> decreased lung compliance

165

makes it difficult to blow air out

emphysema 

166

muscles make chest wall rise and expand --> pleura expands --> pleural pressure drops to -7--> lung volume expands -->

relation of pressure and volume 

167

PAO2 at normal conditions is ____ as ATM

same--no flow in normal conditions--requires action

168

upon inspiration PAO2 ___ to ___

drops to -1--normal inspiration

169

PAO2 and pleural pressure drops

as lung volume rises (think of if I opened balloon from outside)

170

PAO2 and pleural pressure rise 

as lung volume drops

171

possitive pressures

negative pressures

expand

compress

172

difference between alveolar (internal) and pleural (external) pressures

transpulmonary pressure -- closed systems

173

when pressure in alveola becomes negative as from muscles of inhilation activation and increase chest volume in 

0 ATM atmospheric air will passively fill alveola--> gas exchange

174

what O2 you can access/ live with

vital capacity

175

FRC

functional reserve capacity

176

difference between alveolar pressure and intrapleural pressure

transmural/ transpulmonary pressure

177

prime initiator of ventilation

diaphragm--drives mechanical force

178

179

slippery substance that interupts molecules--decreasing surface tension (wants to pull alveola in-->collapse)

surfactant

180

as radius of sphere goes down, pressure (surface tension) goes

up--surfactant keeps alveola (especially small ones) from collapsing

181

O2 diffusion: PAO2 and PaO2 want to 

equilibrate 

182

point at which half of HgB is occupied

P50

183

humans "happy" at almost _____% HgB saturation

100%--roughly 75-100 mmHg PO2 

184

acidic blood pH, ^ CO2, hyperthermia will cause 

"shift to the right" on HgB%/PO2 graph--more pressure needed to saturate HgB

185

if no O2 attached to HgB--site becomes very________ to ______

"attractive" to CO2 -- Haldane effect

186