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Fundies First Module--First Exam > Respiratory II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory II Deck (53):
1

# of breaths per minute

respiratory rate (ventilation rate)

2

respiratory rate X tidal volume

munite ventilation L/min (LPM)

3

respiratory rate is inversely related to _____ ____, but directly related to PCO2 and H+

arterial PO2

4

primary driver of ventilation

blood PaCO2 & H+ concentration--strength and rate of inhalation

5

CO2 easily crosses _____, reacts with H2O to form new H+ and lower _____

BBB--
pH

6

secondary driver of ventilation

PaO2 concentration

7

low O2 in blood (PaO2)

hypoxemia -- low minute ventilation

8

hypoxemia due to

hypoventilation

9

volume in airways/lungs that doesn't participate in gas exchange

dead space (anatomic: nose pharynx, trachea/airway)
(physiologic: anatomic + nonfunctional alveoli)

10

hypoxemia w/ exercise likely due to

diffusion problem

11

intraoperative or life support blows O2 and N into lungs (inspiratory only needed)

mechanical ventilation

12

blood flow next to alveoli facilitating gas exchange

perfusion

13

perfusion driven by

ANS and local factors

14

_____ ventilation and perfusion at the _____ of lungs, due to ________

better--
base--
gravity (blood pools lower--less alveoli at top of lungs)

15

____ alveoli ___ compliant

apex--
less

16

V/Q =

ventilation/ perfusion

17

______ and ______ better at bottom of lung

ventilation and perfusion

18

____ V/Q is normal

.8

19

inadequate ventilation =

V/Q<0.8

20

ventilation is good (lots of O2 in the alveoli, but blood flow (perfusion) is low

V/Q > 0.8
ventilating dead space--

21

redirection of blood flow to bypass alveoli
(normal L --> R common)

shunt

22

R --> L shunt (tetralogy of Fallot)

septal wall defect--will get hypoxemia

23

dx pulmonary disease

1. Chest X-ray first
2. pulmonary function tests--(full function, spirometry(( vol and flow over time)), diffusion)
3. arterial blood gasses (ABG)--blood draw during exercies

24

Low O2 content in an organ

hypoxia

25

low ventilation--inadequate to keep PCO2 from rising above normal

hypoventilation

26

Low PO2 measured in arterial blood

hypoxemia

27

capacities = sums of________

volumes

28

residual volume

can't access it--keeps alveoli open so good

29

TLC

total lung capacity= residual vol+Expiratory reserve vol+tidal vol+ inspiratory reserve vol slide 34

30

resting breath in breath out

tidal volume

31

tidal vol + inspiratory reserve =

inspiratory capacity

32

memorize slide 33/34

*

33

test that measures how fast and how much air you breath out

office spirometry--for dx and mgmt of asthma and COPD

34

office spirometry measures f

1. forced vital capacity in %
2. fraction of air that expired in 1 sec (FEV1)
3. ratio of FEV1/ FVC-- measures degree of obstruction

35

office spirometry graphed as

flow-volume curve
obstruction=bowl shape (longer to exhale)
restriction=missile shaped

36

The air that reaches the alveoli

Ventilation

37

The blood that reaches the alveoli

Perfusion

38

Ratio of air and blood reaching alveoli

V/Q= .8 (norm)

39

for spirometery: FEV/FVC= .8

80% of capacity can be expelled in 1 second

40

normal oxyhemoglobin saturation

98%

41

normal O2 in plasma-- unbound

2%

42

watch O2 hemoglobin dissociation curve video -- do slides w/ slide show

*

43

pulse-ox measures

% of Hemoglobin SATURATION at given time

44

middle of O2-HgB dissociation curve denotes

O2 loading/unloading period of HgB

45

HgB dissociation curve will be shifted by

change in affinity

46

P50 used as

reference point

47

if P50 is high

low O2-HgB affinity--> Right shift (hyperthermia, acidosis)

48

if P50 is low

high O2-HgB affinity--> Left shift (hypothermia, alkalosis)

49

high bound CO2-HgB

low O2-HgB affinity --> high P50 (Bhor)

50

Mneumonic

Exercising Muscle is Warm, Acidic, and makes lot's of CO2

51

CADET face Right

CO2, acid, DPG, Exercise, ^temp --> Right

52

basically for HgB dissociation curve

relation of HgB saturation & PaO2

53

heat speeds up, cold slows down

blood enzymes