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Fundies First Module--First Exam > Cell Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Structure Deck (92):
1

series of molecules that extend outside of cell

glycocalyx

2

glycocalyx

complex in eukaryotes
slime layer or capsule in procaryotes

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glycocalyx

integral to immune system--ABO blood system--bacterial capsule makes harder to kill

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procaryote cell wall

chemically complex

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eukaryotic cell wall

if present--chemically simple

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Ribosomes

prokaryotic= s70
eukaryotic- s80

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eukaryotic plasma membrane

embedded sterols/carbohydrates serve as receptors

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prokaryotic plasma membrane

no carbs & generally lack sterols

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Smooth ER production

lipids

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Golgi apparatus function

post-translational protein modification and packaging

11

Sodium concentrations

142 mEq/I extracell
10 intracell

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Potassium concentrations

4 extracell
160 intracell
Traumatic damage to muscles (auto accident) will release large amounts of K+ into blood thus leading to cardiac arrhythmia's--rhabdomyolysis

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Chloride concentrations

103 extracell
2 intracell

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Bicarbonate HCO3-

27 extracell
8 intracell

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Differences in ion concentrations

due to cell membrane pumps

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proteins associated with inside or outside of plasma membrane

peripheral proteins

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transmembrane cell proteins

integral proteins

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peripheral proteins:

glycoproteins (glycocalyx)

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cholesterol

embedded in plasma membrane--makes lipid bilayer stonger

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drugs speed of action depends on

lipid solubility

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Have difficulties crossing plasma membrane

polar substances--aside from water

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Glycocalyx functions:

1. Molecular signaling/ ID
2. Cell adhesion
3. hydrophilic portion attracts fluid to surgace of cell--helps cells from drying out

23

Driving force for diffusion--leading to diffusion coefficient

1. electrochemical gradients
2. permeability of membrane (partition coefficient)
3. how much surface area/ membrane thickness

24

Which diffusion factor leads to lack of O2 exchange in emphysema

Lower surface area--treatment is to increase O2 concentration (up from normal 20% conc.) to achieve balance

25

partition coefficient

determined by comparing the solubility of a solute in oil vs. water

26

Surgery on obese individuals

bariatric surgery--used to remove part of small intestines--pt would lose weight--less surface area for nutrient absorption

27

faster diffusion method

facilitated diffusion over unfacilitated

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Move large things into cell

vacicular transport--endocytosis vs. exocytosis

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Individual molecules get across a membrane

1. simple diffusion/ passive
2. facilitated diffusion
3. active transport (primary and secondary transport)

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solutes move in same direction

cotransporter or symporter (Na/glucose pump)

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solutes move in opposite directions

countertransporter or antiporter (Na/Ca ATPase)

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concentration of osmotically active particles in solution osmoles/kg of H2O

osmolality
vs. osmolarity (mili-osmoles/liter)

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osmosis =

WATER--much faster than diffusion

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something dissolved in H2O

solute

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normal osmotic pressure of cell--

isotonic

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solution with HIGHER concentration of solutes than the cell--may cause crenation of cell (shriveled)

hypertonic--refers to the solution bathing cells as compared to normal extracellular fluid (295 osmols) ion concentration

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Solution with LOWER concentration of solutes than cell--

Hypotonic--H2O enters cell faster than exiting--hemolysis of cell

38

use of blood vessel wall systemically as a "membrane"--mainly capillary walls

oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure

39

Albumin

made in liver--an important contributor to oncotic pressure. Globular protein--low serum albumin levels will cause edema

40

For cerebral swelling after impact

raise serum albumin artificaillly (manitol) to suck the water out of their brain

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Manitol

large sugar molecule that can't leave vascular system--used to draw water from ECF--used for brain swelling--Hypertonic solution to shrink neurons

42

oncotic pressure

pressure across a blood vessel

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standard resting membrane potential for excitable tissue (nervous, muscle)

65-80 mv--each ion has its own membrane potential

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period between depolarization and repolarization

Absolute refractory period--another action potential not possible--allows for one-way AP propagation

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Period of hyperpolarization

relative refractory period--would need much stronger stimulus to achieve AP

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dull ache

carried by C fibers--unmyelinated fibers

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lidocaine

antagonizes Na channels so can't send AP's -- no depolarization of nerves--diffusion through tissue--wears off after local/ liver metabolism and wider diffusion=pain

48

Methods for getting rid of excess neurotransmitter

1. diffusion
2. chemical degredation
3. pre-synaptic reuptake

49

Ways to effect neurotransmission

1. exhaust neurotransmitters
2. degradate synaptic cleft neurotrans chemical (oxidase) i.e. acetalcolenesterase
3. antagonis/ agonist
4. reuptake inhibition

50

Autoimmune disease--body breaks down post-synaptic neuromuscular ACh receptors

Myasthenia Gravis--treatment: ACh esterase inhibitor leaves more ACh in synaptic cleft leading to muscle cell summation

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^E1 --no time-- ^E1

Temporal summation

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^E1 --time-- ^E2

Spatial summation

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Open chloride channels

IPSP

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neurotransmitters all excitatory except:

GABA and glycine

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tyrosine

precursor to epi and norepi

56

Glycolysis

2 ATP produced

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Citric acid cycle/ Krebs--aerobic respiration

38 ATP produced/ gram of glucose

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hypoxic environment

ex. muscle cells and neurons can handle highly divergent amounts of time in this state

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protein channels for the purpose of communication

gap junction

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Cell releases chemical that affects cells nearby

paracrine

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G-protein coupled receptor

7 trans-membrane loops

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G-protein activates

adenylyl cyclase --> cAMP

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modification of actions on a nuclear level involving mitosis/cell growth/ cellular transformation

Tyrosine-kinase TyrKc--hormone signaling system
7 trans-membrane sections

64

Most abundant second messengers

IP3
cAMP

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the dynamic physiologic adjustments to changing environmental conditions at level of physiologic systems

adaptation i.e. weight lifting leads to larger muscle cells--not more cells vs. atrophy

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degeneration of peripheral nerve

may lead to muscle atrophy

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atrophy vs

hypertrophy--increase in size of cells. i.e. pathologic: cardiac hypertrophy--very thick walls due to increased heart challenge i.e. from hypertension

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atrophy

loss of cell MASS not number. i.e. loss of cellular villa of intestines

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increase in number of cells

hyperplasia

70

abnormal changes in size, shape, organization of mature cells

dysplasia--often found near cancer cells and mostly reversible--HARBINGER of CANCER

71

Replacement of one cell type by another type

metaplasia--ex. squamous cells replace columnar epithelium in trachea of smokers

72

cell injury/ death usually due to

cellular hypoxia-->decreased cellular energy (ATP) --> impairment of ATP powered ion pumps --> cell/ mitochondria swell, metabolic byproducts accumulate, pH decreases, lysosomes rupture --> in bad cases: cell death --> necrosis

73

Ex. deletion of cells during normal embryonic development

apoptosis

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injurious molecules due to an unpaired electron--rxn with other molecules--can donate or accept an electron

free radical--may damage DNA
Vitamins: E, C scavenge for free radicals (antioxydants)

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Ex. infected, malignant and premalignant "spontaneous" cell death

apoptosis

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tyrosine kinase

important sub-cellular that may be trigger and may be clinically important

77

serum albumin

nephrotic syndrom --> urinate serum albumin all out

"puffiness" because not enough albumin to draw water out of tissue

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albumin

globular protein. Primary component of blood plasma--binds water, cations, fatty acids, hormones, billirumen

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symport/ cotransport

secondary active transport

80

One or more solute moves against gradient

Active mediated transport aka active transport

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Solutes move with grade tbrough CHANNEL

Passive mediated diffusion aka facilitated diffusion

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Energy cost is directly at pump-- na/k pump

Primary active transport

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Energy cost to move solute against grade is indirect-- I.e anti porters

Secondary active transport

84

Force of water wanting to move to lower h2o concentration or higher solute concentration

Osmotic pressure

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Hypo albuminemic states

Cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome

86

The diffusion coefficient involves

The structure of the solute crossing the membrane

87

^ partition coefficient

^er the solubility in oil-- easier to move across membrane

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Lower the partition coefficient

Lower the solubility in oil-- > harder to diffuse across lipid bilayer

89

When bet diffusion stops due to equal concentrations on either side

Equilibrium potential

90

AP sequence

Threshold
Depolarization
Peak
Repol
Absolute refractory
Relative refractory

91

Imp 2nd messenger HORMONE signaling system-- modifies actions on nuclear level

Tyrosine-kinase tyrKc

92

2nd messengers

Phospholipase A2
Nitric oxide
CGMP
cAMP
Ca